Section 16

16.1       Fundamentals
16.2       Print Reference Marks
16.3       Emphasis Used to Identify Reference Marks
16.4       Notes without a Reference Mark
16.5       Notes
16.6       Gloss Notes in Foreign Language Texts
16.7       Miscellaneous Notes Issues
16.8       Notes in Tables and Columned Material
16.9       Endnotes
16.10     Heavily Annotated Materials
16.11     Keying Technique for Marginal Labels
16.12     Samples

16.1    Fundamentals

All types of notes are simply called notes in this section. Notes give the reader additional information, e.g., the pronunciation of a word, etc.

Note: There are unique situations for specific types of notes, such as tables and gloss notes in foreign language texts. (See Formats, §16.5.)
For the purposes of these guidelines, a print reference mark is defined as any number, letter, or character used to indicate that there is an additional note to the matter that is being discussed.
Print uses many different symbols to indicate the presence of a note, e.g., asterisk, dagger, hollow dot, superscripted numbers or letters, etc.
16.1.4     The print explanatory notes may be located:

a.  At the foot of the page.

b.  In the margin.

c.  Between lines of narrative text.

d.  In columns facing the narrative text.

e.  On a page facing the narrative text.

f.  Immediately above or below columned or tabular material.

g.  In a note section, either at the end of each chapter or at the back of the book.

h.  Online, with a URL provided in print. In this case, the URL is transcribed, but the transcriber is not responsible for putting the actual notes in the braille edition.

Corresponding braille notes may be located:

a.  At the end of the print page, separated from text by a separation line.

b.  Before or within tabular material.

c.  At the end of the chapter or volume.

d.  In a separate volume for heavily annotated text.

A Braille Reader's Perspective. Providing a braille format for notes is difficult because two things are required. Notes must be easy to find when necessary, but also easy to skip for uninterrupted reading.

16.2    Print Reference Marks

Usually a reference mark is printed in the text after the word(s) to be explained (e.g., word1, worda, word*, or word†). The reference mark is typically repeated in some form before the word at the beginning of the note (e.g., 1. note, a note, *note, or †note). Follow print for the use of the reference marks.
When print uses a symbol to indicate the presence of a note, use the braille equivalent that represents that print symbol. Follow print for spacing, capitalization, and punctuation. Braille reference marks should appear on the same braille line as the word (or last word) referenced. Examples of print reference marks and their braille equivalent (grade 1 indicators are used as required but are not technically part of the symbol and should not be included in the Special Symbols list):

Asterisk                           "9
Dagger                            @,?
Double Dagger                 @,]
Superscripted number 1    ;9#a
Superscripted letter b       ;9b
Superscripted hollow dot   ;9"0

a.  Place the reference mark as shown in print, either before or after the word or phrase being referenced.

b.  List all reference marks used, along with the print symbols they represent, on the Special Symbols page.

c.  Asterisks, daggers, and double daggers that appear raised from the baseline are not considered to be in the superscript position. (See UEB, §3.3.1, Asterisk, Dagger, and Double Dagger.) Retain the superscript format for all other symbols.

Example 16-1: Book with Asterisk Reference Mark

Asterisk reference indicator after Hamlet in first example and before Othello in second example


Example 16-2: Hollow Dot Reference Mark with Punctuation

Hollow dot reference indicator before closing parenthesis in first example, and before period in second example


Example 16-3: Dagger Reference Mark with a Dash

Dagger reference indicator between word and dash

,n[ is ! "t = all brave m5 to fly to
@,?,-!n come home4

Example 16-4: Numbered and Lettered Notes

Superscript numbered note indicator after first word; superscript lettered indicator after last word

script;9#a or libretto;9a

16.3    Emphasis Used to Identify Reference Marks

a.  Follow print when emphasis is used to identify words or phrases with reference notes, e.g., all footnotes are underlined, blue print represents vocabulary, and highlighting represents glossary notes.

b.  When it is clear that one type of emphasis indicates notes, explain this in a transcriber's note. Sample:

All of the bold words in this volume have reference notes associated with them.

Example 16-5: Reference Indicated by Underlining

Line number (170) is indicated at the right margin of the third print line; an underlined word is in line 168

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,all "ul9$ ^ws 9 ! passage 2l h
⠀⠀⠀⠀associat$ notes4@.>
_1fr5zy /ruck "s"o z
& soon ! :ole room ro>$ ) lau<t]
⠀⠀at hm1
s t all t5.n pass$4 444             #agj

16.4    Notes without a Reference Mark

a.  Some notes may appear in the margin, alongside the referenced text, using no print symbol or emphasis.

b.  Insert the word "note", enclosed in transcriber's note indicators, after the point of reference in the text.

c.  The embedded note must be on the same line as at least one word or phrase to which it applies.

Note: Do not confuse marginal notes with sidebars. (See Formats, §12, Sidebars.)

Example 16-6: Note without a Print Reference Mark

Marginal note without a reference mark

,t float+ /uff is call$ slag4 @.<note@.>
,! slag is !n skimm$ (f4

16.5    Notes

Place notes at the end of the print page.

a.  Separate notes from text by a note separation line "333333 (5, 25, 25, 25, 25, 25, 25) across seven cells. The separation line cannot be on the last line of the braille page.

b.  Insert a blank line before a note separation line only when the blank line is required by other formats, such as the end of a list. Exception: To reinforce a change in context, insert a blank line before the page change indicator when the text after the page change indicator begins in the same cell as note runovers. Leave line 1 of the following braille page blank if the note ends on line 25 and the text following the note begins in the same cell as the note runover.

c.  List notes in the order in which they appear in the text. Do not group them by symbol or typeform.

d.  Follow print for the use of reference marks. This may result in different marks being used at the point of reference within text and before the corresponding footnote. Do not add a reference mark if one is not used in print. Use 1-3 margins; for additional paragraphs in a note, use 5-3 margins. Note: Do not repeat transcriber-defined indicators before notes when there are no print reference marks. (See Formats, §16.3b.)

e.  Use the entire width of the braille line for notes.

f.  Retain font attributes unless all notes using the same reference mark are entirely emphasized. Do not retain font attributes for line numbers.

g.  Notes may be separated by a title/heading or a blank line when there are multiple titles with separate note references on one print page. Use cell-5 headings for the titles/headings.

h.  Do not insert a blank line between a note separation line and a title or heading. (See Sample 16-2: Notes with Headings on page 16-18.)

i.   Notes in tables are discussed in Formats, §16.8.

Example 16-7: Note Placement

Paragraph with dagger reference indicator; note located at end of print page, with the referenced phrase indicated with bold and followed by a colon

⠀⠀8,i "k,-t's :at ,i'm say+,-! old
/ories ab ! ka'ts9a _s
@,? & ,yell[
,woman c't m1n u40
@,?^1ka'ts9a ^1_s3 ,a m.ta9 _s ( !
⠀⠀,laguna ,pueblo ,9dians4

Example 16-8: Note with Range of Line Numbers

Line number (165) is indicated at the left margin of the second print line; note for lines 164-166 is at the right margin

^1,juliet4 ,n pr\d y h1 b ?ank;l t
⠀⠀⠀⠀y h4
⠀⠀,pr\d c ,i n"e 2 ( :at ,i hate1   #afe
⠀⠀,b ?ank;l ev5 = hate t is m1nt
#afd-#aff ,i'm n pl1s$1 b ,i am grate;l
⠀⠀= yr 9t5;ns4

Example 16-9: Highlighted Note Reference

Yellow highlighted word begins paragraph; note to word in note section at end of print page; referenced word indicated in bold and followed by colon

@#1,pr$aci\s1 fi]ce1 secretive1 maje/ic1
& ev5 wise >e adjectives t describe !
^1pr$aci\s3 "*i/ic ( a pr$ator

16.6    Gloss Notes in Foreign Language Texts

Notes that translate words, phrases, or terms used in a foreign language text are considered gloss notes. Note: This formatting only applies to gloss notes; other types of reference notes in foreign language materials are placed as directed in Formats, §16.5.

a.  Place gloss notes in foreign language materials on the line following the material to which the note applies.

b.  Use 7-5 margins and follow print for any reference marks used.

c.  If no print reference mark is used, insert an embedded transcriber's note following the point of reference within the text.

16.7    Miscellaneous Notes Issues

Treat multiple-marked or unmarked reference points on the same line as separate references. (See Sample 16-4: Two Marked Notes on an Unnumbered Print Line on page 16-21.)

Example 16-10: Two Unmarked Notes on a Numbered Print Line

Line number 15 at right margin of second print line; no reference indicators appear in paragraph; two notes for line 14 are at end of print page

,brutus3 ,romans1 @.<note@.>         #ad
@.<note@.> & lov]s6 ,he>
⠀⠀me = my   cause1 & 2 sil5t1 t y    #ae
⠀⠀may he>3 2lieve me4
#ad ,romans3 citiz5s ( ,rome
#ad c.trym53 ,italians
Transcribe each reference mark used at the same reference point as a separate indicator. Follow print order for these reference marks.

Example 16-11: Two Indicators at Same Reference Point

Dagger and double dagger appear after same word; notes with indicator at right margin, with referenced word indicated in italics and followed by colon

,! seme/] 0 2g9n+ ) a flurry (
activities4 ,all ! /ud5ts 7 preo3upi$ )
! details ( ! syllabus
@,?@,] t 0
4sem9at$ by ! pr(essor at ! op5+ class4
@,?.1syllabus3 !⠀subject /udi$ = a
⠀⠀"picul> c\rse
@,].1syllabus3 a summ>y \tl9e ( a c\rse
⠀⠀( /udy
Notes with Pronunciation. Do not add a second uncontracted spelling for words with pronunciation.

Example 16-12: Note with Pronunciation

Underlined word in paragraph; note to word at end of print page, with referenced word in bold, and followed by pronunciation in parentheses

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,all "ul9$ ^ws 9 ! passage 2l h
⠀⠀,! build+ _h a fe/ive air on ! \tside
t 3tra/$ ) xs 9n]
_1/aid;s4 ,ll by ll1
,juan 0 absorb$ by 8 job1 & he felt at
p1ce s9ce he 0 do+ "ey?+ he cd to get 8
lr = ,m>iana4
^1/aid;s "</@-ad^.bn@+is"> ;n4 a quiet1
⠀⠀(t5 /rait-lac$ dign;y
16.7.4     Notes Containing Displayed Quoted Material. When a note contains quoted matter set off from the body of the note by blank lines, quotation marks, change of margins, or font attributes, use the listed format of 1-3 for the note, and use the guidelines found in Formats, §9, Displayed Material, Attributions, and Source Information. (See Sample 16-5: Note with a Quote on page 16-22.)
Notes Referring to Notes on a Different Page or in a Different Volume. When a note refers to another note located on a different page or in a different volume, repeat the referenced note after the original note. Transcribe multiple-referenced notes in the order mentioned in the original note.

a.  Transcribe the note on the current page using 1-5 or 1-7 margins, depending on the number of references included in the note. Use a nested list format if more than two additional levels of references are included. The nested list format for notes is used only on these pages. Use 1-3 margins for notes on all other pages.

b.  Transcribe the note referencing the first note using 3-5 or 3-7 margins, depending on the number of notes.

c.  Use 5-7 margins for a note referencing the second note.

d.  Include both page location information and reference marks, when given.

Note: Do not repeat a referenced note in a volume of endnotes, where notes are transcribed exactly as written. (See Sample 16-6: Repeated Note on page 16-23.)

Notes Continued on Additional Print Pages. When a note is divided between print pages, complete the entire note on the print page on which it begins (before the print page change indicator). When the continuation of a print note is the only material on the following page, place the page change indicator following the note. Treat the page with the continued note as if it is blank; combine that print page number with the following print page number. (See Sample 16-7: Continued Note on Next Print Page on page 16-24.)
Notes on Facing Pages. Use combined print page numbers when transcribing text and notes printed on facing pages. Lettered continuation pages require the combined print page numbers. (See Sample 16-8: Notes on Facing Page on page 16-26.)

a.  An agency may request that notes be provided in a separate volume(s) when a book has text and notes on facing pages. In this situation, use combined page numbers in both volumes of text and notes. Indicate that the notes are in a separate volume on the Transcriber's Notes page. Sample:

The text and the notes to the text are in separate volumes.

b.  The following is an example of the volume and page numbering for the individual volumes. The text is in the first volume, with notes in the following volume.

Volume 3
Braille pages t1-t5 and 1-67
Print pages 45-a70

Volume 4
Braille pages t1-t5 and 1-55
Print pages 45-a70

16.8    Notes in Tables and Columned Material

Notes in Table Format

a.  Place notes before tables as, in most situations, they need to be read before reading the table to understand the entries in the table.

b.  Insert a transcriber's note before the table. Sample:

Note(s) in the table below.

c.  Do not include the note(s) within the transcriber's note.

d.  Place a blank line after the transcriber's note and then insert the reference note(s).

e.  Use 1-3 margins for all notes.

f.  Begin each note with the appropriate reference mark, followed by the note on the same line.

g.  Do not leave blank lines between notes.

h.  Other transcriber's notes follow the reference note(s).

(See Sample 16-9: Note in Column Entry on page 16-27.)
Notes in Alternate Table Formats. Insert notes to listed, linear, and stairstep tables within the table.

a.  Use 7-5 margins for all notes.

b.  Do not leave a blank line between notes.

c.  Listed format: Insert the note on the next line after the completion of the cell entry.

d.  Linear format: Insert the note on the next line after the completion of the entire row.

e.  Stairstep format: Insert the note on the next line after the completion of the cell entry.

f.  A reference mark may be included in a keyed transcriber's note. Insert the note after the completion of the transcriber's note explaining the key.

(See Sample 16-10: Notes in a Listed Table on page 16-28.)

16.9    Endnotes

Notes may be combined in a special section at the end of a chapter or at the end of a book. Usually endnote sections use consecutive superscript numbers within the chapter and do not use font attributes.
General Provisions for Endnote Sections

a.  Follow print for the placement of endnote sections at the end of each chapter.

b.  Endnotes at the end of a book generally are divided and placed at the end of the volume in which the references appear.

c.  Extensive endnote sections may be placed in a separate volume. This transposition of endnotes must be mentioned on the Transcriber's Notes page in each volume. Sample:

The endnotes to the text are in a separate volume.

Example 16-13: Extensive Notes in a Separate Volume (Print Only)

Two long numbered notes in paragraph form (print only)
Format of Endnotes

a.  Begin an endnote section on a new braille page.

b.  Insert the heading NOTES if the text does not include a heading at the beginning of the note section. Enclose it in transcriber's note indicators, on line 1 (line 3 if a running head is used).

c.  Use 1-3 margins for each endnote.

d.  Do not add print page numbers to the notes if they do not appear in print.

e.  Before the note section in each volume, repeat lists of abbreviations for book/magazine titles referred to in the endnotes. List the abbreviations using 1-3 margins and follow print for punctuation, capitalization, and font attributes. Also follow print for the capitalization and use of font attributes for the abbreviations within the endnote.

Example 16-14: List of Note Abbreviations (Print Only)

Two headings (NOTES, Abbreviations) followed by a list of abbreviations and their meanings (print only)

(See Sample 16-11: Endnotes on page 16-30.)

Endnote Sections without Reference Marks. If the endnote section shows only print page numbers and/or print line numbers, and there are no print reference marks in the body of the text:

a.  Begin each endnote with the print page number. Include the line number as well as the print page number for line-numbered material.

b.  Do not insert a reference mark within the text.

c.  Do not include braille line numbers in the note section.

16.10  Heavily Annotated Materials

Extensive notes can interrupt the flow of reading. The requesting agency may choose to:

a.  Create an endnote section at the end of a volume.

b.  Move the notes to a separate volume, retaining print page numbers.

16.11  Keying Technique for Marginal Labels

Labels printed in the margin can be intrusive in braille and great care needs to be taken to not interrupt the flow of text any more than necessary. List the labels in a key before the text.

a.  Devise a key by assigning letters for each label that reflect the meaning of the print label.

b.  Do not use numbers as a key for marginal labels.

c.  Do not use contractions or letters that comprise short form words as keys for marginal labels.

d.  Leave a blank line before and after the list of keyed items.

e.  Use 1-3 margins for key items and list them in the order in which the labels occur in the accompanying text. Note: The dot locator for "mention" is not required preceding letters that represent keys.

f.  The complete key is enclosed in a transcriber's note. Place the closing transcriber's note indicator following the last item in the list.

g.  In the text, insert the assigned key, followed by a space, before the appropriate material. Use braille grouping indicators to enclose the affected text. Explain this usage in a transcriber's note. Sample:

In print, labels appear in the margin of the following letter. In braille, the labels are keyed. The keyed label is inserted before the beginning of the text to which it applies. Labeled phrases or sentences are enclosed in braille grouping indicators.

Symbols used below:

.=<   Opening braille grouping indicator.
.=>   Closing braille grouping indicator

Key to labels:

ti  Title
au  Author (last name first)
yb  Year of birth
dp  Date of publication
pu  Publishers

(See Sample 16-12: Marginal Labels on page 16-32 and Sample 16-13: Labeled Letter on page 16-34.)

16.12  Samples

Sample 16-1: Multiple Reference Marks

Five notes, each with a different reference indicator

 1⠀"9,,$s4 ,,note,-,orwell 0 writ+ 9    #,-
 2⠀⠀⠀#aicf1 :5 ,hitl] & ,/al9 7 9 p[] & ,_w
 3⠀⠀⠀,w> ,,ii 0 only ?ree ye>s away4
 4⠀"9"9,,$s4 ,,note,-.1,raj3 sov]eignty4
 5⠀"9"9"9,,$s4 ,,note,-,f "t immemorial4
 6⠀@,?,,$s4 ,,note,-,9 t]roriz+ hm4
 7⠀@,],,$s4 ,,note,-,t is1 g"o 9to an
 8⠀⠀⠀uncontrollable fr5zy4


Sample 16-2: Notes with Headings

2 poems with notes: 1st poem's notes indicated by line numbers and notes to right; 2nd poem's word italicized and superscript 1, and bold in note section

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,i l a look ( ,agony      #bfh
 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,emily ,dick9son
 5⠀,i l a look ( ,agony1
 6⠀,2c ,i "k x's true,-
 7⠀,m5 d n %am ,3vul.n1 @.<note@.>
 8⠀,nor simulate1 a ,?roe,- @.<note@.>
10⠀,! ,eyes glaze once,-& t is ,d1?,-    #e
11 444
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀8,gd ,ni<t1 ,willie ,lee1
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,i'll ,see ,y 9 ! ,morn+0
15 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,alice ,walk]
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
18 ,look+ d[n 9to my "f's
19 444
20 te>s1 )\t smiles                      #e
21 )\t regrets
22 b ) .1civil;y;9#a
23 444

—New Braille Page—

 1⠀"333333                            a#bfh
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,i l a look ( ,agony
 3⠀#c ^1%am ^1,3vul.n3 pret5d to h a
 5⠀#d ^1,?roe3 sudd5 surge ( pa94
 7⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀8,gd ,ni<t1 ,willie ,lee1 ,i'll ,see
 8⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,y 9 ! ,morn+0
 9⠀#a ^1civil;y3 polite;s1 especially 444


Sample 16-3: Sequentially Numbered Notes

Paragraph with superscript numbered notes; two notes in section at end of print page, with referenced words indicated in bold and followed by colon

15 ⠀⠀,to my ,"l's;9#a 9 ! morn+1 ": ,i met
16 ) ,capta9 ,cutt.e4 ,b my ,"l n 2+ up1 ,i
17 w5t \ to ,*>+ ,cross to see ,major
18 ,g5]al ,h>rison;9#b hang$1 drawn1 &
19 qu>t]$,-: 0 d"o "!,-he look+ z *e];lly z
20 any man cd d 9 t 3di;n4 444
21 "333333
22 #a4 ^1my ^1,"l's3 ,$w>d ,montagu
23 ⠀⠀"<#afbe-#afgb">1 e>l ( ,s&wi*2 he 0 a
24 ⠀⠀c\s9 ( ,pepys & 8 sup]ior at ! ,naval
25 ⠀⠀,(fice4                            #,-

—New Braille Page—

 1⠀#b4 ^1,h>rison3 ,?omas ,h>rison    b#edd
 2⠀⠀⠀"<#afjf-#affj">1 "o ( ! p responsible
 3⠀⠀⠀= ! execu;n ( ,k+ ,*>les ,i 9 #afdi4


Sample 16-4: Two Marked Notes on an Unnumbered Print Line

Hollow dots in unnumbered line poetry; notes at end of page; bold words before definition; semicolon separates notes on same print line

 1⠀,ha? 9 ! skirts ( ,norway "h & "!    #,-
 2⠀,%>k'd up;9"0 a li/ ( law.s
 4⠀,= food & diet1;9"0 to "s 5t]prise
 5⠀,t ha? a /oma* 9't2 : is no o!r
 8⠀^1,%>k'd ^1up ,got tgr 9 haphaz>d
10 ^1resolutes ,desp]adoes4
11 ^7food & diet^' ,no pay b _! keep4
12 ------------------------------------#bii
13 444


Sample 16-5: Note with a Quote

Note with a 3-line displayed quote within the note

 1⠀⠀⠀,8,%]idan w n su3e$ at ,ba? ) 8   a#,-
 2⠀oratory4 ,ridicule has g"o d[n 2f hm1 &1
 3⠀,i d\bt1 ,d]rick is 8 5emy4,0"9
 5⠀"9,mr4 ,%]idan 0 !n r1d+ lectures ^u
 6⠀⠀⠀,oratory at ,ba?1 ": ,d]rick 0 ,ma/] (
 7⠀⠀⠀! ,c]emonies2 or1 z ! phrase is1 ,,k+
 8⠀⠀⠀,,boswell4 ,dr4 ,p>r1 :o knew ,%]idan
 9⠀⠀⠀well1 describes hm ,8z a wr;g-h1d$1
10 ⠀⠀:imsical man4,0 444 ,take a sample3
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀8.1,n"o b ! brave
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,n"o b ! .1brave4
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,n"o .1b ! brave des]ve ! fair40
15 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,nau<ty ,ri*>d .<;,r4 ;,b4
17 ⠀⠀,%]idan.>1 l ,gallio1 seem$ to c>e n"\
18 ⠀⠀= ^! ?+s4,0 ,moore's .1,%]idan1 i4 #i1
19 ⠀⠀#aa4


Sample 16-6: Repeated Note

Note 4 is on page 72; note 5 is on page 73 and references note 4

 1⠀444                                  #gb
 2⠀,d y feel t x is a3eptable = a c\nselor
 3⠀to act z an exp]t 9 viabil;y,-or
 4⠀employ;t opportunities t cd result f a
 5⠀music $uca;n;9#d8
 7⠀;9#d,see3 .7,a ,bl ,music ,/ud5t's
 8⠀⠀⠀,college ,survival ,guide.'
10 444
11 ,&1 h[ _m >e aw>e t publi%$ labor
12 /ati/ics cle>ly 4pel ^! my?s;9#e8
13 444
14 "333333
15 ;9#e,see note #d4
16 ⠀⠀;9#d,see3 .7,a ,bl ,music ,/ud5t's
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,college ,survival ,guide.'


Sample 16-7: Continued Note on Next Print Page

Two facing pages of a book, where a footnote continues across the bottom of both print pages

 1⠀444 n"e 3fess$ until n[4           a#dcc
 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,f ,susy's ,biography4
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,at la/ x 0 "t = papa to return to
 6⠀⠀⠀,h>t=d1 & ,langdon 0 r1l sick at t "t1
 7⠀⠀⠀b / mamma decid$ to g ) hm1 ?9k+ !
 8⠀⠀⠀j\rney mi<t d hm gd4 ,b af !y r1*$
 9⠀⠀⠀,h>t=d he 2came v sick1 & 8 tr\ble
10 ⠀⠀proov$ to 2 dip!]ia4#aj ,he di$ ab a
11 ⠀⠀week af mamma & papa r1*$ ,h>t=d4 444
12 ⠀⠀,br[n+1 ,sir ,*>les ,dilke1 ,mr4
13 ⠀⠀,*>les ,r1de1 ,mr4 ,william ,black1
14 "333333
15 ;9#aj;his tr\ble prov$ to 2 dip!]ia 444
16 ⠀⠀buri$ 444 at ,elmira1 ,new ,york4
17 ⠀⠀,langdon ,clem5s1 born prematurely1 0
18 ⠀⠀n"e robu/ & 0 sl[ to develop4 444
19 ⠀⠀9cl9$ to blame hmf unju/ly0 "<,,ls3
20 ⠀⠀,crane to ,pa9e1 #be ,may #aiaa1
21 ⠀⠀photocopy 9 ,,cu-,,m>k1 444 #ahgb to
22 ⠀⠀,,oc & ,,mec1 #hf">4
23 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
24 ------------------------------------#dcd
25 ⠀⠀,"l ,h"\on1 ,frank ,buckl&1 ,mr4 444


Sample 16-8: Notes on Facing Page

Notes are on page 100 and aligned with line-numbered text (Julius Caesar) on page 101

20 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,re5t] ,antony4
21 "333333
22 #adc ^1resolv'd 3v9c$4
23 444
24 #aei ^1falls ^1%rewdly happ5s to an
25 ⠀⠀extreme degree4 ,"!=e1 8,my        #,-

—New Braille Page—

 1⠀⠀⠀suspicions un=tunately >e   b#ajj-#aja
 2⠀⠀⠀alw a3urate40


Sample 16-9: Note in Column Entry

Asterisk reference indicator in table cell

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,table #g4a           #,-
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,social ,readju/;t ,rat+ ,scale
 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀"<f ,holmes & ,rahe1 #aifg">
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,note to table 5try4@.>
 7⠀"9 ,m>riage 0 >bitr>ily assign$ a /ress
 8⠀⠀⠀value ( #ejj2 444
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,m1n
11 ,rank  ,life ev5t                 value
12 "3333  "333333333333333333333333  "33333
13 #a ""  ,d1? ( sp\se """"""""""""  #ajj
14 #b ""  ,divorce """"""""""""""""   #gc
15 #c ""  ,m>ital sep>a;n """""""""   #fe
16 #d ""  ,jail t]m """""""""""""""   #fc
17 #e ""  ,d1? ( close family memb]   #fc
18 #f ""  ,p]sonal 9jury or ill;s     #ec
19 #g ""  ,m>riage """"""""""""""""   #ej"9
20 444


Sample 16-10: Notes in a Listed Table

Table with an asterisk reference indicator in a column heading, and a double asterisk reference indicator in a table cell

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,ma9 ,products ( !        #,-
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,_w's ,m9es
 6⠀,annual3 ,,annual ,,produc;n"9
 7⠀,produc]s3 ,,l1d+ ,,produc]s "<.0
 9⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀"9#a1jjj ,metric tons
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,preci\s ,metals
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,,product3 silv]
14 ,annual3 #af
15 ,produc]s3 ,mexico "<#ae.0">1 ,u4,s4
16 ⠀⠀"<#ab.0">
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
18 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,,product3 gold
19 ,annual3 #b
20 ,produc]s3 ,s\? ,africa "<#bh.0">1
21 ⠀⠀,u4,s4 "<#ad.0">

—New Braille Page—

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,product3 plat9um               a#,-
 2⠀,annual3 #j4c
 3⠀ ,produc]s3 ,s\? ,africa "<#ej.0">1
 4⠀ ⠀⠀,russia "<#db.0">
 6⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,fossil ,fuels
 8⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,product3 coal
 9⠀,annual3 #d1fjj1jjj
10⠀,produc]s3 ,*9a "<#bd.0">1 ,u4,s4
11 ⠀⠀"<#bj.0">
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,,product3 petroleum
14 ,annual3 #c1jjj1jjj
15 ,produc]s3 ,russia "<#ae.0">1 ,saudi
16 ⠀⠀,>abia "<#ac.0">
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
18 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,,product3 natural gas
19 ,annual3 #b1jjj1jjj"9"9
20 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀"9"9,cubic met]s
21 ,produc]s3 ,russia "<#ca.0">1 ,u4,s4
22 ⠀⠀"<#bd.0">
23 gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg
24 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀


Sample 16-11: Endnotes

Note section, identified with headings, chapter, two paragraphs of comments, and list of notes

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,notes             #gbg
 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,*apt] #a3 8,ike0
 4⠀,am;g ! books ,i 3sult$ 9 writ+ ? *apt]1
 5⠀! foll[+ 7 "picul>ly help;l3 444
 8⠀#a4 ,alanbrooke1 .1,w> .1,di>ies1
 9⠀⠀⠀#cee-#eje4 ,? is a 3/ant !me 9
10 ⠀⠀,alanbrooke's di>y 5tries1 ?\< he does
11 ⠀⠀v>y x f "t to "t ) ev5 m exasp]at$
12 ⠀⠀rem>ks ab ,ike1 s* z1 8,he is a hope.s
13 ⠀⠀comm&]0 "<#fch">4
14 #b4 ,w9/on ;,s4 ,*ur*ill1 .7,9to
15 ⠀⠀,battle3 ,w9/on ,*ur*ill's ,w>
16 ⠀⠀,spee*es1.' spee* 9 ! ,h\se (
17 ⠀⠀,commons1 ,may #ai1 #aidj1 #bab4
18 #c4 ,l>rabee1 .7,comm&] 9 ,*ief1.' #cdg4
19 #d4 ,w9/on ;,s4 ,*ur*ill1 .1,9to
20 ⠀⠀.1,battle1 spee* 9 ! ,h\se ( ,commons1
21 ⠀⠀,june #d1 #aidj1 #bai4
22 #e4 ,cald]1 .7,! ,p's ,w>1.' #aac4
23 #f4 ,w9/on ;,s4 ,*ur*ill1 .7,n"e
24 ⠀⠀,give ,96.' spee* ( ,novemb] #aj1 444


Sample 16-12: Marginal Labels

Paragraph with areas marked off with marginal labels

 8⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,! foll[+ p>agraph is m>k$ )
 9⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀labels 9 ! m>g94 ,9 brl1 ea* label
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀is key$4 ,! label is 9s]t$ 2f !
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀2g9n+ ( ! text to : x applies4
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,label$ s5t;es >e 5clos$ 9 brl gr\p+
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀9dicators4
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,symbols us$ 2l3
15 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
16 .=< ,op5+ brl gr\p+ 9dicator
17 .=> ,clos+ brl gr\p+ 9dicator
18 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
19 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,key to labels3
20 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
21 in ,9d5t
22 os ,op9ion /ate;t
23 ss ,support+ s5t;es
24 cs ,3clud+ s5t;e@.>
25 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#,-

—New Braille Page—

 1⠀777777777777777777777777777777777   a#,-
 2⠀⠀⠀in os ;<,al?\< "s p mi<t pref] wat*+
 3⠀,,tv or napp+1 = me swimm+ is ! be/ way
 4⠀to relax4;> ss ;<,fir/ ( all1 swimm+
 5⠀quiets my m9d4 ,af a few laps1 all !
 6⠀"d's worries j dra9 \ ( me4 ,9 addi;n1
 7⠀swimm+ 5]gizes me4 ,! deep br1?+ s5ds m
 8⠀oxyg5 to my bra9 & muscles4 ,afws1 ,i'm
 9⠀wide awake & refre%$4 ,if ,i h home"w to
10 d1 ,i c 3c5trate bett] on x4 ,fur!rmore1
11 ,i'm n"e sore af swimm+1 z ,i "s"ts am
12 af runn+ & o!r k9ds ( ex]cise4;>
13 cs ;<,"s p mi<t say t swimm+ laps is
14 bor+ 2c y're n r1lly go+ any":1 b = me
15 x's a pa? to feel+ good4;>
16 gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg


Sample 16-13: Labeled Letter

Marginal labels to parts of a social letter

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,model3 ,social ,lr      #abd
 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,sec;ns ( ! foll[+ lr >e m>k$ )
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀labels 9 ! m>g94 ,9 brl1 ea* label
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀is key$4 ,! label is 9s]t$ 2f !
 6⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀2g9n+ ( ! text to : x applies4
 7⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,label$ phrases >e 5clos$ 9 brl
 8⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀gr\p+ 9dicators4
 9⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,symbols us$ 2l3
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
11 .=< ,op5+ brl gr\p+ 9dicator
12 .=> ,clos+ brl gr\p+ 9dicator
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,key to labels3
15 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
16 hn ,h1d+
17 sa ,saluta;n
18 bo ,body
19 cl ,compli;t>y close
20 si ,signature@.>

—New Braille Page—

 1⠀77777777777777777777777777777777   a#abd
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀hn ;<#aja ,monticello ,road
 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,columbus1 ,ohio #dcbai
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,octob] #b1 #ai,-;>
 6⠀sa ;<,de> ,j]emy1;>
 7⠀⠀⠀bo ;<,i 0 r1lly glad to get yr lr 9 !
 8⠀mail ye/]"d6 444
 9⠀⠀⠀,i'm glad to he> y're mak+ frs at yr
10 new s*ool4 444
11 ⠀⠀,we're gett+ r1dy = ! so3] s1son "h
12 n[1 z y "k4 444
13 ⠀⠀,pl1se write ag soon4;>
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀cl ;<,y\r fri5d1;>
15 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀si ;<,&rea;>
16 gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg