Section 6
Illustrative Materials

6.1       Fundamentals

6.2       Format

6.3       Descriptions

6.4       Omitted Illustrations

6.5       Concept Maps, Graphic Organizers, Idea Webs

6.6       Flowcharts

6.7       Forms

6.8       Genealogical and Ancestral Charts

6.9       Organizational Charts

6.10     Timelines

6.11     When a Tactile Graphic Is Not Produced

6.12     Screenshots

6.13     Slide Presentations

6.14     Samples

6.1    Fundamentals

For our purposes, illustrative material applies to photographs, maps, drawings, etc. Specialty types of graphic materials (e.g., graphic novels and cartoons) are discussed in Formats, §14, Plays, Cartoons, and Graphic Novels.
The preferred method for conveying information from illustrations (e.g., maps, Venn diagrams, bar charts, etc.) is by using tactile materials. Guidelines and Standards for Tactile Graphics, 2010 should be followed when producing graphics.       
A Braille Reader's Perspective. Graphics should be reproduced when possible, especially if the student needs to understand the conventions used in the illustration as part of professional training.

One way of testing a picture description is to see if someone unfamiliar with the book can answer the question, perform the task described, or get the joke without having seen the print book. If a sighted person cannot understand a tactile graphic in a subject with which he is familiar, a similarly knowledgeable braille reader will not understand it either.

6.2     Format

The format for illustrations makes captions and descriptions standard and easy to locate.

a.  Include all print captions accompanying images. Any associated copyright information that may appear alongside the image should be included in a new paragraph after the completion of the caption. Follow print for wording and sequence of information.

b.  Some illustrative materials may require a transcriber-generated description.

Use 7-5 margins for print captions and transcriber-generated descriptions.

a.  Do not insert blank lines before or after captions or descriptions unless required by other formats, e.g., headings, lists, etc.

b.  If the original print copy does not identify an illustration, insert a label in a transcriber's note (e.g., photograph, figure, etc.) followed by the text of the caption on the same line. No punctuation is needed between the identifier and the text because the transcriber's note indicators provide sufficient separation.

Example 6-1: Photograph with Caption

Photograph of a beardless Abraham Lincoln, along with a caption

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,photograph@.> .7,! ,e>lie/
⠀⠀⠀⠀,"kn ,photograph ( ,abraham
⠀⠀⠀⠀,l9coln.' ,? is a r>e view ( a
⠀⠀⠀⠀be>d.s ,abraham ,l9coln4 444

c.  When an illustration has a source citation, place it immediately following the caption using 7-5 margins. If a description of the illustration is required, begin the source citation on the line following the description.

d.  Follow print for numbering style used for illustrations (e.g., hyphens, decimals, etc.).

Example 6-2: Figure Number and Caption

Caption with figure number

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,figure #bj4a ,! balloon &
⠀⠀⠀⠀gondola us$ by ,pi3>d & ,j"os dur+
⠀⠀⠀⠀_! su3ess;l attempt to circle !
⠀⠀⠀⠀globe 9 ,m>* #aiii4

e.  When both a print caption and a transcriber-generated description are needed, begin the description (enclosed in transcriber's note indicators) on the line following the caption. (See Sample 6-1: Figure with Source Information on page 6-13.)

Usually an illustration is inserted as close as possible to corresponding discussion in the text. If an appropriate location is not apparent, place it after the last full paragraph on the page on which it appears. Do not interrupt a sentence for the illustration.
When an illustration is on a page other than where it is discussed, it may be necessary to move it from the original location so that it will appear near the pertinent text. Moving content to another page should be done only after careful consideration, as typically it is best to follow print. When an illustration is moved to a different print page, insert a transcriber's note at the original location giving the print page number, including the continuation letter, of the new location. Also insert a transcriber's note before the illustration at its new location, stating the page number of its original position in print.

6.3     Descriptions

Some images may require a description, which is enclosed in transcriber's note indicators following the caption. Use appropriate vocabulary for the grade level and subject matter.

Example 6-3: Illustration with Description and Caption

Picture with caption

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,photograph@.> ^7,views (
⠀⠀⠀⠀ang]^' ,h[ wd ea* ( psy*ology's
⠀⠀⠀⠀levels ( analysis expla9 :at's go+
⠀⠀⠀⠀on "h8
@.<,a ref]ee is sep>at+ two
⠀⠀⠀⠀a?letes :o >e >gu+ & po9t+ f+]s at
⠀⠀⠀⠀ea* o!r4
The National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) conducted research and posted information for writing descriptions for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) images. Effective Practices for Description of Science Content within Digital Talking Books is geared towards digital talking books, however there are many applicable points for writing descriptions in transcriber's notes.

The key points pertaining to braille production in the STEM Description Guidelines are:

Brevity: Use as few words as possible.

Data: Focus on the data and not on extraneous visual elements.

Clarity: The reader should be able to understand the description in one reading.

Drill-Down Organization: Start with a brief description, followed by more specific information. This allows the reader to get the initial concept and read further if desired.

Tables: Some content is better converted to tables than being provided in a narrative description.

Processes: Some processes presented visually can be converted to nested lists.

Narrative Description: Many illustrations are best described in a linear, narrative format. When writing narrative descriptions, follow the first four guidelines: brevity, data, clarity, and drill-down organization.

The following website provides more detail about each of these points.

6.4     Omitted Illustrations

Some illustrations, such as those inserted in print for visual appeal, may be omitted. The relationship of the illustration to the text is what is important. Consult the requesting agency. Include a statement on the Transcriber's Notes page when all illustrations of a particular type (e.g., photographs without captions) are omitted.
Insert a transcriber's note at each point of omission when only some of the images are not included. This is especially important when some numbered illustrations are not included. Sample:

Figure 6.4 tnDiagram is

6.5     Concept Maps, Graphic Organizers, Idea Webs

Concept maps have a central idea with rays branching out to subordinate ideas. Whenever possible, concept maps are done as a tactile graphic. When a request is made for a text-based format, use a nested list (1-5, 3-5; 1-7, 3-7, 5-7; etc.) to indicate the individual elements of the web. The central idea of the concept map is the first level in the nested list. Other elements are listed in the appropriate level in a logical order, e.g., top to bottom, right to left, etc. A careful reading of the concept map may dictate another placement order. Use three dot 5s to indicate blank elements. Explain this usage in a transcriber's note.

Example 6-4: Samples of Concept Map Outlines (Print Only)

Three concept map outlines (print only)
(See Sample 6-2: Concept Map on page 6-14.)

6.6     Flowcharts

A flowchart is a diagram showing the step-by-step progression through a procedure or system, using connecting lines and symbols. Flowcharts frequently have Yes or No paths to follow. See the Flowchart Design for Applicable Braille Codes, available from, to assist with these situations. Note that the indicators and shapes shown in the 1991 version of this document are out of date, but helpful guidance and examples are given for the layout of a flowchart.

6.7     Forms

Print forms are illustrations of pre-printed documents. Some are informative, others have blanks to be filled in or choices to be made.
When a form is omitted:

a.  Omit forms that are included only for visual interest and are not necessary for understanding of the content.

b.  Use a transcriber's note to identify the form and briefly describe it.

When a form is produced:

a.  Give a brief description of the form first.

b.  Do not reproduce print forms spatially.

c.  Enclose the form in box lines if appropriate. Avoid boxes within boxes unless it is essential for understanding the layout of the form.

d.  Use a 1-3 list or 1-5, 3-5 nested list to present the items in the form.

e.  Use an underscore to represent a blank.

(See Sample 6-3: Print Form on page 6-16.)

f.  When the lines imply the length of an answer, use an embedded transcriber's note to let the reader know how many write-on-lines appear in print.

g.  Use script indicators to represent "written" responses indicating sample replies.

(See Sample 6-4: Print Form with Sample Responses on page 6-18.)


6.8     Genealogical and Ancestral Charts

Descendant Charts

a. Transcribe descendants' genealogical charts using a nested list format (1-5, 3-5; 1-7, 3-7, 5-7; etc.).

b.  Begin descendant charts with the ancestors, and descend to the most current generation.

c.  Follow print for symbols used for marriage or other types of relationships (e.g., twins). Note: if line symbols are used, the line terminator may be required.

(See Sample 6-5: Genealogical Chart on page 6-20.)

Ascending Ancestral and Pedigree Charts

a.  Transcribe ancestral and pedigree charts as lists, using
1-3 margins. Begin with the most current item or person and move backward through the generations. Assign a number to each name or item in the chart, beginning with the most current. List them sequentially, moving back through each generation, in the same direction as the chart. Sequential numeric identification allows the ascending parentage to be followed without using a tactile graphic.

b.  Follow each item with any information specific to the item or individual, e.g., dates of birth/death, etc. Immediately follow this information with the two numbers from the list that represents the parent(s). Use a comma to separate the two numbers. Use three dot 5s to represent the missing connection if only one parent is listed.

c.  Insert a transcriber's note about the parentage numbers. Sample:

Each individual in the list is given an identifying number. The numbers following an individual's name are the identifying numbers for the parents. Three dot 5s rather than a number are used for a missing parent.

(See Sample 6-6: Ancestral Tree on page 6-22 and Sample 6-7: Pedigree Chart on page 6-24.)

6.9     Organizational Charts

For our purposes, an organizational chart is a diagram of the structure and/or personnel of an organization. The principal parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines to show hierarchical rank or interrelationships. Transcribe such material using a nested list format (1-5, 3-5; 1-7, 3-7, 5-7; etc.). (See Sample 6-8: Organizational Chart on page 6-26.)

6.10   Timelines

Timelines have many visual layouts, from very simple lists to more complex graphics. Treat timelines as lists and transcribe them in chronological order regardless of the order found in print.

a.  Use a 1-3 list format for a simple timeline.

b.  Transcribe the date first, followed by the event, on the same line.

c.  Include the first and last date shown, with or without an associated event.

d.  Omit all other dates without associated events.

e.  Insert captions for images that apply to a specific date at appropriate locations.

f.  For a complex timeline use a nested list (1-5, 3-5; 1-7, 3-7, 5-7; etc.).

Timeline with Bars. Insert the range of years when bars are used to indicate a span of time. Usually it is necessary to provide an estimate of the dates. Include a transcriber's note to let the reader know all dates are approximate. Place the note on the Transcriber's Notes page when these types of timelines are used throughout the volume. (See Sample 6-9: Timeline with Bars on page 6-27.)
Timelines with Multiple Events in the Same Year. Use a nested list format when a date has more than one event. Place the date at the left margin (cell 1). Use 3-5 margins for each following event. (See Sample 6-10: Timeline with Multiple Events on page 6-28.)
Multipage Timelines. (Note: this refers to timelines that appear on more than two consecutive pages.) Insert the timeline at the most appropriate location on the first page it appears. Precede the timeline with a transcriber's note to indicate the range of pages. Sample:

Timeline is across the bottom of pages 44–47.

Simple Shared Date Timelines. Use list format (1-3) for timelines that have a shared date and individual events. (See Sample 6-11: Simple Shared Date Timeline on page 6-29.)
Complex Shared Date Timelines. Use a nested list format (1-5, 3-5; 1-7, 3-7, 5-7; etc.) when print shows several major topics with the timeline. Another option may be to list the events after a cell-5 heading. (See Sample 6-12: Complex Shared Timeline on page 6-30.)

6.11   When a Tactile Graphic Is Not Produced

Although a tactile graphic is preferred, the following guidelines may be used when requested by an agency, if the time frame of the needed material is too short, or if there are multiple samples of the same type of graphic and only one graphic is produced as a sample.
It is necessary to present information in an appropriate format when images are not produced as tactile graphics and the content of the diagram is not included in the surrounding text. These options include lists, tables, and descriptions. Refer to the STEM guidelines.

A transcriber's note provides information about how the information is presented. (See Sample 6-13: Bar Graph on page 6-32 and Sample 6-14: Venn Diagram on page 6-34.)

6.12   Screenshots

Screenshots of web pages are used often as a teaching tool in textbooks. The format used to transcribe screenshots depends on the focus of the illustration.

a.  Enclose all screenshots in a box.

b.  Use transcriber's notes to indicate location and color cues as necessary.

Informative Screenshots. Group content in sections when screenshots are informative, i.e., used to teach Internet research skills.

a.  Retain headings and separations.

b.  Transcribe all information necessary for understanding in a logical order.

c.  Ignore color.

Descriptive Screenshots. These screenshots are used to teach website design.

a.  A tactile graphic is frequently the best option if the purpose of the screenshot is to show the page design.

b.  A complete and detailed description of the screenshot is provided when a tactile graphic is not possible. Include the following:

(1)  Divide the web page into sections, e.g., navigation panel on the left, the tool bar on the top, the content area, the footer, etc.

(2)  Describe text placement as needed.

(3)  Indicate hyperlinks, which are a word, phrase, or image that can be clicked on to jump to a different location.

(See Sample 6-15: Screenshot on page 6-36.)

6.13   Slide Presentations

Slide presentations created in Microsoft PowerPoint, Corel Presentations, Keynote, etc., are often requested in braille, especially in a school environment.

a.  Each slide number is treated as the print page number.

b.  As text on slides may be informally structured, it is necessary to determine a format for best readability. Most text is formatted using headings, indented/blocked paragraphs, and lists.

c.  Enclose any transcriber-generated descriptions in transcriber's note indicators.

d.  If speaker's notes are included, use 7-5 margins. Begin a note with the identifier "Note," enclosed in transcriber's note indicators. Continue the note on the same line.

6.14   Samples

Sample 6-1: Figure with Source Information

Image with source information included

 4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,figure #g-#a ^7,div+'s e>ly
 5 ⠀⠀⠀⠀hi/ory4^' ,9 ! mid #afjjs !
 6 ⠀⠀⠀⠀extremely 9v5tive⠀,italian sci5ti/
 7 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,giovanni ,borelli 0 ! f/ to
 8 ⠀⠀⠀⠀visualize a div] z a free-swimm+
 9 ⠀⠀⠀⠀frogman1 complete ) swim f9s4
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,draw+3 ,a div] ) an air bag &
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀a valve4 ,! div] is we>+ a full body
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀div+ suit1 f9s1 cap1 & a mask4@.>
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,c\rtesy ( ,hi/orical ,div+
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,society1 ,,usa


Sample 6-2: Concept Map

Simple concept map

 3 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,3cept ,map3 a c5tral 3cept
 4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀writt5 9 bold pr9t is %[n 9side an
 5 ⠀⠀⠀⠀oval4 ,second>y 3cepts >e %[n 9
 6 ⠀⠀⠀⠀regul> pr9t 9side circles & ovals :
 7 ⠀⠀⠀⠀>e l9k$ to ! c5tral figure by /rai<t
 8 ⠀⠀⠀⠀l9es4@.>
10 ,,pride
11 ⠀⠀,i cov]$ my bro!r's newspap] r\te :ile
12⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀he recov]$ f a brok5 leg4
13⠀⠀⠀,i won ! c;ywide spell+ bee4
14⠀⠀,at ! ,meet ( ,*ampions1 ,i swam !
15⠀⠀⠀⠀fa/e/ race ( my life4
16⠀⠀,mom 0 nom9at$ to run ! ,,pta 9 \r


Sample 6-3: Print Form

Medical wallet card

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,five ,wi%es ,wallet ,c>d
 3 ,important ,notice to ,m$ical ,p]sonnel3
 4 ,i h a ,five ,wi%es ,adv.e ,directive4
 6 ,signature .-
 7 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 8 ,pl1se 3sult ? docu;t &_/or my ,h1l?
 9 ,c>e ,ag5t 9 an em]g5cy4 ,my ,ag5t is3
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
11 ,"n .-
12 ,address .-
13 ,c;y_/,/ate_/,zip .-
14 ,ph"o .-
15 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
16 ,my prim>y c>e physician is3
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
18 ,"n .-
19 ,address .-
20 ,c;y_/,/ate_/,zip .-
21 ,ph"o .-
22 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
23 ,my docu;t is locat$ at3 .-

Sample 6-4: Print Form with Sample Responses

Form with written responses

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,ord] ,=m
 2⠀,to ord] "s?+ f a catalog or a magaz9e1
 3⠀y c use an ^1ord] ^1=m4 ,2 sure to
 4⠀9clude all ! 9=ma;n ab ! item & ": to
 5⠀s5d x4
 8⠀,code ,numb] @1,c#hca
 9⠀,book ,title "<,,,pl1se pr9t cle>ly,'">
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀@7,! ,woman ,:o ,\t%"o ! ,sun@'
11 ,s5d ,to @1,m>cos @1,salaz>
12 ,s*ool @7,wa%+ton ,jr4 ,hi<@'
13 444
14 ,home ,r1d+ ,club
15 ⠀⠀,date @7,m>* #f1 #bjja@'
16 ⠀⠀,am.t @s@1#f4ie
17 ⠀⠀,sales ,tax @s@1#4ej
18 ⠀⠀,,total @s@1#g4de
19 ,p4,o4 ,box #ehab ,mc,h5ry1 ,,il #fejea
20 gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg
21 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀


Sample 6-5: Genealogical Chart

Genealogical chart of genealogy for James I

 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,a2reviat$ ,g51logy ( ,james ,i
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,! symbol .="377⠀9dicates
 8⠀,james ,i #aeff-#afbe
 9⠀⠀⠀,*>les ,i #afjj-#afdi
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,*>les ,,ii #afcj-#afhe
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,m>y #afca-#affj"377',william (
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,orange
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,william ,,iii
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#afej-#agjb"377',m>y ,,ii
15 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#affb-#afid
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,james ,,ii #afcc-#agja"377',anne
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,anne #afeh-#agah
18 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,m>y ,,ii #affb-#afid"377',william
19 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,iii #afej-#agjb
20 ⠀⠀,elizabe? #aeif-#affb"377',fr$]ick
21 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,sophie #afcj-#agad"377',elector (
22 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,hanov]
23 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,george ,i #affj-#agbg


Sample 6-6: Ancestral Tree

Ancestral tree for Nelson Slater Smith

 3 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,ea* 9dividual 9 ! ance/ral
 4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀tree 2l is giv5 an id5tify+ numb]4
 5 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,! numb]s foll[+ an 9dividual's "n
 6 ⠀⠀⠀⠀>e ! id5tify+ numb]s = ! p>5ts4@.>
 7 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 8 #a ,nelson ,slat] ,smi? #ahbg-#aijh #b1
 9 ⠀⠀#c
10 #b ,daniel ,smi? #agge-#ahed #d1 #e
11 #c ,susan ,holmes #aghf-#ahfd #f1 #g
12 #d ,samuel ,smi? #agdb-#ahbg #h1 #i
13 #e ,abigail ,w"r #agdh-#agih #aj1 #aa
14 #f ,?omas ,holmes ,,ii #agef-#ahdj #ab1
15 ⠀⠀#ac
16 #g ,tam> ,h>ris #ad1 #ae
17 #h ,jasiel ,smi? ,sr4 #agjj-
18 #i ,hannah ,ga*et -#agee
19 #aj ,john ,w"r
20 #aa ,m]cy ,m>y ,kellogg
21 #ab ,?omas ,holmes ,i
22 #ac ,abigail ,pike
23 #ad ,abn] ,h>ris ,sr4
24 #ae ,deborah ,m>cy


Sample 6-7: Pedigree Chart

Pedigree chart of orchids

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,p$igree ( ,santa
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,cruz ,sweethe>t ,or*id
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,ea* type ( or*id 9 ! li/ is
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀giv5 an id5tify+ numb]4 ,! numb]s
 6⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀foll[+ ! or*id "n >e ! id5tify+
 7⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀numb]s = ! 8p>5ts0 ( t or*id4 ,?ree
 8⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀dot #es r ?an a numb] >e us$ = a
 9⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀miss+ p>5t4@.>
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
11 #a ,santa ,cruz ,sweethe>t #b1 #c
12 #b ,no2y's ,amy #d1 #e
13 #c ,dawn ,tr1d] #f1 #g
14 #d ,2 ,glad #h1 #i
15 #e ,ro?s*ildiana #aj1 #aa
16 #f ,dawn ,promise #ab1 #ac
17 #g ,gladrose #ad1 #ae
18 #h ,swiss ,miss
19 #i ,cass&ra
20 #aj amabilis
21 #aa """
22 #ab ,dawn ,welcome
23 #ac /u>tiana
24 #ad ,mel9da ,rose
25 #ae ,glad ,mel9da


Sample 6-8: Organizational Chart

Simple organizational chart

 2⠀⠀⠀,colonel ,a
 3⠀⠀⠀,colonel ;,b
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,capta9 ,a
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,s]g1nt ,a
 6⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,s]g1nt ;,b
 7⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,private ,a
 8⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,private ;,b
 9⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,capta9 ;,b
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,capta9 ;,c


Sample 6-9: Timeline with Bars

Timeline using bars to indicate a period of time

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,! dates 9 ! "tl9e >e
 5⠀#afae-#affj ,5gli%1 ,fr5*1 ,dut* settle
 6⠀⠀⠀,nor? ,am]ica
 7⠀#afbj-#afdj ,rule by ,c>d9al ,ri*elieu
 8⠀#afbe-#afgj ,pa9t+s ( ,rembr&t
 9⠀#afcj-#afde ,5gli% ,civil ,w>
10 #afdj-#afhe ,fr$]ick ,william ! ,grt
11 ⠀⠀,elector
12 #afde ,(ficial recogni;n ( ! ,dut*
13 ⠀⠀,republic
14 444
15 #agbe


Sample 6-10: Timeline with Multiple Events

Timeline with more than one event in the same year

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,hi/ory ( ! ,9ca
 4⠀c4#aajj ,9cas settle 9 ,cuzco4
 6⠀⠀⠀,pa*acuti 2comes rul]4
 7⠀⠀⠀,9can ,empire 2g9s4
 8⠀#aecb ,spani% 9vade ,9can ,empire4
 9⠀#aegb ,9can ,empire falls4
10 #afej


Sample 6-11: Simple Shared Date Timeline

Shared timeline with two separate set of events

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,maya ,,angel\
 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,! foll[+ "tl9e is acr ! bottom
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀( pages #dgf-#dgg4 ,! "tl9e is 9 two
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀sec;ns4 ,,h] ,,life ev5ts >e
 6⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀italiciz$4 ,,h] ,,"ts ev5ts >e n
10 #aibh .7,is born 9 ,st4 ,l\is on ,april
11 ⠀⠀#d.'
12 #aibi ,grt ,depres.n 2g9s4
13 #aica .7,moves to ,/amps1 ,>kansas.'
14 #aicc ,,fdr laun*es ! ,new ,d1l4
15 ------------------------------------#dgg
16 #aidj .7,moves to ,san ,francisco.'
17 #aida ,unit$ ,/ates 5t]s ,_w ,w> ,,ii4
18 444


Sample 6-12: Complex Shared Timeline

Shared timeline for 1340-1550 (approximate)

Option 1: Nested List

 1⠀,,,politics & gov]n;t,'
 2⠀⠀⠀#acdg ,black ,d1? /rikes ,europe
 3⠀⠀⠀#acfh ,m+ dyna/y e/abli%$ 9 ,*9a
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,picture@.> ,ivory /atue ( a
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,daoi/ figure c>v$ dur+ ! ,m+ dyna/y
 6⠀⠀⠀#adib ,*ri/oph] ,columbus r1*es !
 9⠀,,,society & culture,'
10 ⠀⠀#acge
11 ⠀⠀#aejh ,mi*elangelo 2g9s pa9t+ ,si/9e
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,*apel
13 ⠀⠀444
14 ⠀⠀#aebe

Option 2: Heading with List

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,,politics & gov]n;t,'
 2⠀#acdg ,black ,d1? /rikes ,europe
 3⠀#acfh ,m+ dyna/y e/abli%$ 9 ,*9a
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,picture@.> ,ivory /atue ( a
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,daoi/ figure c>v$ dur+ ! ,m+ dyna/y
 6⠀#adib ,*ri/oph] ,columbus r1*es !
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,,,society & culture,'
11 #acge
12 #aejh ,mi*elangelo 2g9s pa9t+ ,si/9e
13 ⠀⠀,*apel
14 444
15 #aebe


Sample 6-13: Bar Graph

Bar graphs for 1870 and 1920 with labeled information

Option 1: List Format

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,*ange 9 ,4tribu;n ( !
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,am]ican ,"w=ce1 #ahgj-#aibj
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,data f pr9t b> graphs is
 8⠀,miscellane\s #aj4d.0
 9⠀,trade #f4h.0
10 444
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀#aibj
13 ,miscellane\s #aa4d.0
14 ,trade #g4c.0
15 444

Option 2: Table Format

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,*ange 9 ,4tribu;n ( !
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,am]ican ,"w=ce1 #ahgj-#aibj
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,data f pr9t b> graphs is %[n 9
 5⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀a table4 ,numb]s 9 ! #ahgj & #aibj
 6⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀columns >e p]c5tages4@.>
 8⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#ahgj  #aibj
 9⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀"3333  "3333
10 ,miscellane\s """""""  #aj4d  #aa4d
11 ,trade """"""""""""""  #f4h   #g4c
12 ,pr(es.nal1 ,cl]ical1
13 ⠀⠀,public ,s]vice """  #c4g   #ad4a
14 ,manufactur+_/
15 ⠀⠀,transporta;n """""  #bf4a  #dj4b
16 ,agriculture """"""""  #ec4j  #bg4j


Sample 6-14: Venn Diagram

Venn diagram with 2 overlapping ovals

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,critical ,?9k+                 b#ig
 2⠀,! ,3/itu;n e/abli%$ a detail$ plan 444
 3⠀.7,:at p[]s >e %>$ by ! na;nal & /ate
 6⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,divi.n ( ,f$]al & ,/ate ,p[]s
 8⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,v5n diagram3 ,9=ma;n is %[n 9
 9⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀two ov]lapp+ ovals4 ,! 9=ma;n 9 ea*
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀oval is li/$ "u a sec;n h1d+4@.>
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,sec;n #a@.>
13 ,,na;nal ,,gov]n;t
14 ⠀⠀_4 ,regulate =eign & 9t]/ate comm]ce
15 ⠀⠀_4 ,co9 m"oy
16 ⠀⠀444
17 ⠀⠀_4 ,e/abli% f$]al c\rts 2l ! ,supreme
18 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,c\rt
19 ⠀⠀444
20 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
21 ⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,ov]lapp+ ,sec;n #b@.>
22 ,,na;nal & ,,/ate ,,gov]n;ts
23 ⠀⠀_4 ,levy taxes
24 ⠀⠀_4 ,borr[ m"oy
25 ⠀⠀444                                #,-

—New Braille Page—

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,sec;n #c@.>                 c#ig
 2⠀,,/ate ,,gov]n;ts
 3⠀⠀⠀_4 ,regulate 9tra/ate comm]ce
 4⠀⠀⠀_4 ,e/abli% local gov]n;t sy/ems


Sample 6-15: Screenshot

Screenshot of webpage in textbook

Screenshot for Information Only

 7⠀back  =w>d  home  reload  /op  pr9t
 9⠀,address http3_/_/se>*4com_/se>*8p"7.0"
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,hyp]l9ks@.>
13 ,sci;e3 ,a/ronomy3 ,sol> ,sy/em3
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,planets3 ,m>s3 ^7,life on ,m>s8^'
15 ⠀⠀,sci;e ,magaz9e3 ^7,life on ,m>s^'
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,special
17 ⠀⠀,is "! ^7life on ,m>s8^' an 9t]view )
18 ⠀⠀⠀⠀top sci5ti/s
19 gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg

Screenshot for Web Page Layout

 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,top3 ,title@.>
 7⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,left m>g93 ,toolb>@.>
 8⠀back  =w>d  home  reload  /op  pr9t
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,left m>g93 ,,url field@.>
11 ,address http3_/_/se>*4com_/se>*8p"7.0"
12 ⠀⠀#bblife"6on"6mars.0#bb
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,left m>g9@.>
15 @#7,sci;e3 ,a/ronomy3 ,sol> ,sy/em3
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,planets3 ,m>s3 ^7,life on
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,m>s8^'@#'
18 ⠀⠀@#7,sci;e ,magaz9e3 ^7,life on ,m>s^'
19 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,special@#'
20 ⠀⠀@#7,is "! ^7life on ,m>s8^'@#' an
21 ⠀⠀⠀⠀9t]view ) top sci5ti/s
22 gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg


Sample 6-16: Slide Presentation

PowerPoint slide 1 PowerPoint slide 2

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,scre5 ,r1d]⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#c
 3⠀,scre5 ,r1d]
 4⠀⠀⠀,- r1ds ele;ts on a comput] scre5
 5⠀⠀⠀,- is nec to navigate & op]ate a
 7⠀⠀⠀,- uses text to spee* to r1d text on !
10 ,,tts is a text r1d]
11 ⠀⠀,text ,r1d] "7@: @.<n equal@.> ,scre5
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,r1d]
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
14 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,note@.> ,! comput]'s abil;y z
15 ⠀⠀⠀⠀a text r1d] is (t5 3fus$ ) a scre5
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀r1d]4 444
17 --------------------------------------#d
18 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
19 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,w9d[s ,,xp ,- ,spee* ,prop]ties
20 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
21 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,scre5%ot3 ,spee* ,prop]ties &
22 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,text ,to ,spee* dialog4 ,language
23 ⠀⠀⠀⠀is set = ,micros(t ,5gli% "<,u4,s4">
24 ⠀⠀⠀⠀v#f4a ,recogniz]2 ,recogni;n
25 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,pr(iles3 .1,s&y is *eck$@.>     #,-

—New Braille Page—

 1⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,note@.> ,text to spee*     a#d
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀sett+s = comput]s ) ,w9d[s op]at+
 3⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀sy/ems c 2 f.d 9 ! 3trol panel4
 4⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,if y >e us+ ,w9d[s ,,xp1 444