Section 4
Headings

4.1      Fundamentals

4.2      Heading Hierarchy

4.3      General Provisions for Centered, Cell-5, and Cell-7 Headings

4.4      Centered Headings

4.5      Cell-5 Headings

4.6      Cell-7 Headings

4.7      Marginal Headings

4.8      Paragraph Headings

4.9      Icons and Headings

4.10    Lengthy Series of Headings

4.11    Reference Marks and Notes to Headings

4.12    Samples

4.1    Fundamentals

4.1.1
Print books use various methods to distinguish headings: different fonts and font sizes, color, placement on the page, etc. Just as print headings provide a hierarchy structure of levels, an effort should be made to achieve the same type of structure in braille. This is done after a careful examination of headings in the table of contents and the body of text. It is important to be consistent in the treatment of similar print headings throughout the entire transcription. (See Sample 4-1: Page with Multiple Heading Levels on page 4-14.)
4.1.2
A Braille Reader’s Perspective. Headings are one of the most important ways a reader obtains information about the print format of material being presented on the braille page. Headings denote hierarchy, and by doing a quick finger scan one can quickly move to pertinent sections. A reader who finds blank space at the margin will check to see what it means by doing a quick scan of the current line and possibly the next several lines (usually to about the middle) to see if something is indented and if the general indent pattern has changed—such as a change from a paragraph to a list.

Think of blank lines before headings like a stop sign. When readers encounter one, they stop to check. Finding a heading level quickly is the key for the braille reader. The more it stands out, the more important that heading level is. A centered heading will quickly show an uneven structure somewhere near the middle of the line. Cell-5 and cell-7 headings will show even left margins at their particular indent levels. Readers learn to find common indent levels almost without counting cells.

4.2     Heading Hierarchy

4.2.1
As a general rule, centered headings are used to represent the print headings of major sections of the text, and cell-5 and cell-7 headings are used to represent the print headings for subsections shown within major sections. When there are more than three distinct heading levels in print, cell-7 headings are applied only to the lowest hierarchy level; the use of centered headings is extended to one or more subsection levels as necessary.

Example 4-1: Three Distinct Heading Levels (Print Only)

Partial page with three distinct types of headings
4.2.2
The order of braille heading hierarchy is as follows: centered, cell-5, cell-7.(See Sample 4-2: Heading Hierarchy on page 4-17.)

Additional provisions governing the use and placement of headings are given in other sections of these guidelines.

4.3     General Provisions for Centered, Cell-5, and Cell-7 Headings

4.3.1
A heading can be placed on line 1 of the braille page if a running head is not used.
4.3.2
Place a heading on line 3 if a running head is used.
4.3.3
Do not insert a blank line between connected headings.

Example 4-2: Centered Title and Author Headings

Title and author

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,by ,any ,o!r ,"n
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,san?a ,rama ,rau
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

⠀⠀⠀⠀

Example 4-3: Connected Chapter Number and Title Headings

Consecutive related headings

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,!me #a
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,transi;ns
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀,transi;ns >e *anges,-passages f "o
place to ano!r1

Example 4-4: Unit Number and Title

Unit Number and Title

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,unit ,,"o
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,! ,%ort ,/ory ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

4.3.4
A heading is preceded by a blank line when it follows a page change indicator.

Example 4-5: Heading Following a Page Change Indicator

Heading following a page change indicator

#e4 ,am;g ! museum's o!r           c#adg
⠀⠀tr1sures "<is1 >e"> s"eal suits (
⠀⠀>mor4
------------------------------------#adh
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,9t]rupt$ ,ord]
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀,! n\n close/ to ! v]b is n alw !
subject ( a s5t;e4

4.3.5
A heading is not preceded by a blank line when it follows a top box line.

Example 4-6: Heading After a Top Box Line

Heading after a top box line

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
7777777777777777777777777777777777777777
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,take ,c>e ( a ,noseble$
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
~7,sit up"r & l1n =w>d4~' ,by rema9+
⠀⠀up"r1 y r$uce blood pressure 9 ! ve9s
⠀⠀( yr nose4 444
gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

4.3.6
A heading is not preceded by a blank line when it follows the note separation line. (See Formats, §16.5, Notes.)
4.3.7
Follow print capitalization. Ignore font attributes in centered, cell-5, and cell-7 headings, except when required for distinction.

Example 4-7: Heading with Partial Emphasis

Heading with partial emphasis

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀,h5rik ,ibs51.7,a ,doll's ,h\se.'
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
,nora "<pause">3 ,does any?+ /rike y z
⠀⠀we sit "h8

4.3.8
Follow print for use of punctuation (e.g., hyphen, dash, colon, slash, etc.) in headings.
4.3.9
Centered, cell-5, and cell-7 headings must be followed by at least one line of text on the braille page.
4.3.10
Centered, cell-5, and cell-7 headings are not repeated when the text that applies to them is continued on the following page.

4.4     Centered Headings

The following guidelines are in addition to the general provisions in Formats, §4.3.
4.4.1
A centered heading is preceded and followed by a blank line.

Exceptions:
  1. Do not insert a blank line between a centered heading and a related box.
  2. A centered heading is preceded but not followed by a blank line in a table of contents entry.
  3. Do not insert blank lines before or after alphabetic divisions in alphabetic references.
4.4.2
At least three blank cells must precede and follow a centered heading.
4.4.3
Headings should be balanced and divided at a logical location when longer than one line.

Example 4-8: Balanced Centered Heading

balanced centered heading
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,,us+ natural res\rces
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀9 ! unit$ /ates,'
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

4.5     Cell-5 Headings

The following guidelines are in addition to the general provisions in Formats, §4.3.
4.5.1
Precede a cell-5 heading with a blank line.
4.5.2
Block the heading in cell 5.
4.5.3
The heading is usually not followed by a blank line, and takes precedence over the use of blank lines in other formats, such as lists (unless the list is arranged in more than one column). (See Formats, §4.5.4, §8.4.1a, Simple Lists in Columns.)

Example 4-9: Cell-5 Heading Before List

Cell-5 heading before list

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀,mat]ials
field notebook
field guide ( >ea species "<plant1
⠀⠀animal1 & fungus"
/r+
p5cil⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
4.5.4
Maintaining the hierarchy of headings in a document is important, and there may be times when columned material will follow a cell-5 heading. Insert a blank line to separate the cell-5 heading from the columns so it is clear the heading is related to all columns.

Example 4-10: Cell-5 Heading Before Related Columns

Cell-5 Heading before related columns

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀,irregul> ,adv]bs
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
,positive ,comp>ative ,sup]lative
"33333333 "3333333333 "3333333333
well """" bett] """"" be/
badly """ worse """"" wor/
ll """""" less """""" l1/
m* """""" m """"""""" mo/
f> """""" f>!r """""" f>!/
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

4.5.5
A cell-5 heading cannot be followed by a centered heading.
4.5.6
A cell-5 heading may be followed by an equally important cell-5 heading, without a blank line between the two headings. This format is dictated by the hierarchy of the headings.
4.5.7
A cell-5 heading may be followed by a cell-7 heading, without an intervening blank line.(See Sample 4-3: Cell-5 Heading Followed by a Cell-7 Heading on page 4-18.)

4.6     Cell-7 Headings

The following guidelines are in addition to the general provisions in Formats, §4.3.
4.6.1
Cell-7 heading guidelines are essentially the same as cell-5 heading guidelines.
4.6.2
Precede a cell-7 heading with a blank line.

Exception: There is no blank line between a cell-5 heading and cell-7 heading.
4.6.3
Block the heading in cell 7.
4.6.4
Follow a cell-7 heading by accompanying text, including lists, on the next line.(See Sample 4-4: Cell-7 Heading with Displayed Quotation on page 4-19.)
4.6.5
Maintaining the hierarchy of headings in a document is important, and there may be times when columned material will follow a cell-7 heading. Insert a blank line to separate the cell-7 heading from the columns, so it is clear the heading is related to all columns.

Example 4-11: Cell-7 Heading Before Unrelated Columns

Cell-7 heading before unrelated columns

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,v]bs
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
b1t bl[ cat* d
2come br1k *oose draw
2g9 br+ come dr9k
bet bur/ cut drive
bite buy dive eat
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

4.6.6
A cell-7 heading cannot be followed by a:

Centered heading
Cell-5 heading
Cell-7 heading

4.7     Marginal Headings

4.7.1
Unit, chapter, or section headings printed in the margin are placed before the material to which they apply. Use the heading level appropriate to the material.

Example 4-12: Marginal Heading

marginal heading

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀,,rememb]
,m5u items t h an >r[ to ! "r (f]
subm5us1 : y c op5 by hold+ yr m\se on t
m5u *oice4 ,(t5 ! subm5us h _! [n
subm5us )91 (f]+ ev5 m programs4

4.8     Paragraph Headings

4.8.1
Paragraph (run-in) headings introduce the focus of the paragraph(s). The heading is typically an emphasized word or phrase and may or may not be followed by punctuation. Follow print for emphasis, capitalization, and punctuation. Use full capitalization for uppercase paragraph headings. No additional emphasis should be used.

Example 4-13: Paragraph Heading

paragraph heading

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,commun;y ,,s]vice
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
~1,ac;n ~1,plan ,h[ c y get 9volv$ )
tree plant+ 9 yr commun;y8

Example 4-14: Uppercase Paragraph Heading

uppercase paragraph heading

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,commun;y ,,s]vice
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
,,ac;n,,plan ,h[ c y get 9volv$ ) tree
plant+ 9 yr commun;y8

4.8.2
Changing Paragraph Headings to Cell-5 or Cell-7 Headings. A paragraph heading may provide better navigation for the braille reader when it is separated from the paragraph and changed to a cell-5 or cell-7 heading.(See Sample 4-5: Paragraph Headings Relocated on page 4-20and Sample 4-6: Paragraph Heading Changed to Cell-5 Heading on page 4-21.)
4.8.3
Heading levels may be changed in the braille edition to enhance the importance of a specific heading. A heading level may be changed to another form of heading if:
  1. More than one kind of paragraph heading is used, distinguishable to the print reader by a different font size or face; or
  2. The effect of a paragraph heading covers multiple paragraphs or the effect of the heading cannot be readily identified by obvious means, such as another paragraph heading or change in type of material.

4.9     Icons and Headings

4.9.1
Icons may be used with headings or within text to indicate specific types of text, e.g., important facts, essay questions, etc. (See UEB, §3.22, Shapes and §11.7.2, Transcriber-Defined Shapes.) The icon (shape indicator and letters) is preceded and followed by a blank space. Icons follow print for placement, e.g., preceding or following a heading.

Example 4-15: Pencil Icon with Heading

pencil icon with heading

⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀`$p,we ,rememb]

4.9.2
The icon symbol may be omitted when a written description has been provided and the information is more logically provided using the available text. It will be necessary to determine the best option for each book.
  1. When appropriate, icon headings may be expressed in words. This may be a better option for earlier grades.
  2. Icons may be devised and print followed for placement, e.g., following a heading.(See Sample 4-7: Icon Headings with Descriptions on page 4-22.)
4.9.3
List the icon on the Special Symbols page.

4.10   Lengthy Series of Headings

4.10.1
Extremely long series of headings may take an entire braille page without subsequent text, especially on braille page 1 when there is a long full title. The last heading, in its entirety, should be on the same page where text begins.

4.11   Reference Marks and Notes to Headings

See Formats, §16, Notes, for the format of notes and reference marks.

4.12   Samples

Sample 4-1: Page with Multiple Heading Levels

Page with multiple heading levels

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,sec;n #cg4b        #ajhd
 2⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,! ,immune ,sy/em
 3 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,r1d+ ,preview
 5 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 6 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,objectives
 7 _4 ~7,comp>e & 3tra/~' nonspecific &
 8 ⠀⠀specific immun;y4
 9 444
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,review ,vocabul>y
12 ~7:ite blood cells3~' l>ge1 nucl1t$
13 ⠀⠀blood cells t play a major role 9
14 ⠀⠀protect+ ! body f =eign sub/.es &
15 ⠀⠀microorganisms
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,new ,vocabul>y
18 comple;t prote9
19 9t]f]on
20 444
21 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
22 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,,ma9 ,idea
23 ,! immune sy/em has two ma9 compon5ts3
24 nonspecific immun;y & specific immun;y4
25 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#,-

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,r1l-,_w ,r1d+ ,l9k        a#ajhd
 2 ,we live ) a numb] ( pot5tial pa?og5s s*
 3 z bact]ia & viruses t c cause 41se4 444
 4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 5 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,nonspecific ,immun;y
 6 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 7 ,at ! "t ( bir?1 ! body has a numb] (
 8 def5ses 9 ! immune sy/em t fi<t (f
 9 pa?og5s4 444
10 ⠀⠀,! nonspecific immun;y provid$ by !
11 body helps to prev5t 41se4 444
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
13 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,b>ri]s
14 ,l ! /r;g walls ( a =t1 b>ri]s >e us$ by
15 ! body to protect ag/ pa?og5s4 444
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
17 ~1,sk9 ~1b>ri],"o ( ! simple/ ways t !
18 body avoids 9fecti\s 41se is by prev5t+
19 =eign organisms f 5t]+ ! body4 444
20 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
21 ~1,*emical ~1b>ri]s,saliva1 te>s1 &
22 nasal secre;ns 3ta9 ! 5zyme lysozyme4
23 444

 

Sample 4-2: Heading Hierarchy

heading hierarchy

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,make ,3nec;ns
 2 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 3 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,writ+ ,,ela,-;,w #b4c
 4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,write a ,report
 5 ,"s types ( bact]ia h be5 us$ to help
 6 cl1n up oil spills 9 oc1ns or 9 lakes4
 7 ,ga!r 9=ma;n ab h[ ! bact]ia 7 us$1 &
 8 prep>e a report4 ,%>e yr f9d+s ) ! o!r
 9 /ud5ts 9 yr class4
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,ma? ;,,sdap #a4a
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,make a ,graph
13 ,h1l?y soil has l>ge numb]s ( decompos]s
14 liv+ 9 x4 ,"o gram ( soil "<m* less ?an
15 an \nce"> c 3ta9 #ajj1jjj algae1
16 #a1jjj1jjj fungi1 & #ajj1jjj1jjj
17 bact]ia4 ,make a b> graph comp>+ !
18 numb]s ( ^! types ( decompos]s 9 ! soil4

 

Sample 4-3: Cell-5 Heading Followed by a Cell-7 Heading

Heading followed by a cell-7 heading

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,! ,puni%;t ( ,crime
 2 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 3 ,torture & capital puni%;t rema9$ common
 4 f1tures ( ,europ1n judicial sy/ems well
 5 9to ! ei<te5? c5tury4 ,public spectacles
 6 7 especially grue"s z ? exc]pt f !
 7 .1,nocturnal .1,spectator ( ,re/if de la
 8 ,bretonne demon/rates4
 9 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,re/if de la ,bretonne1
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀.1,nocturnal .1,spectator
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,! ,brok5 ,man
13 ,i w5t home by way ( rue ,sa9t-,anto9e &
14 ! ,place 444

 

Sample 4-4: Cell-7 Heading with Displayed Quotation

Cell-7 heading with displayed quotation

 6 ⠀⠀,/rik+ ! prop] bal.e 2t fre$om = !
 7 9dividual & ! "rs ( society z a :ole is
 8 simil>ly di6icult,-& vital4 ,abraham
 9 ,l9coln once /at$ democracy's problem 9
10 ^! ^ws3
11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
12 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,,prim>y ,s\rces
13 ⠀⠀8,m/ a gov]n;t ( necess;y 2 too /r;g =
14 ⠀⠀! lib]ties ( xs [n p1 or too w1k to
15 ⠀⠀ma9ta9 xs [n exi/;e80
16 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,-.7,response to a ,s]5ade1.'
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,novemb] #aj1 #ahfd
18 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
19 ⠀⠀,human 2+s desire bo? lib]ty & 444

 

Sample 4-5: Paragraph Headings Relocated

Paragraph headings relocated

Option 1

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,3nec;n to ,hi/ory
 2 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,! tree ( life
 3 ,9 8 book .7,on ! ,orig9 ( ,species.'1
 4 ,*>les ,d>w9 us$ ! analogy ( a tree to
 5 su7e/ t all ( ! species

Option 2

 6 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,3nec;n to ,hi/ory
 7 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,! tree ( life
 8 ,9 8 book .7,on ! ,orig9 ( ,species.'1
 9 ,*>les ,d>w9 us$ ! analogy ( a tree to
10 su7e/ t all ( ! species

Option 3

11 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,3nec;n to ,hi/ory
12 @#7,! tree ( life@#',9 8 book .7,on !
13 ,orig9 ( ,species.'1 ,*>les ,d>w9 us$ !
14 analogy ( a tree to su7e/ t all ( !
15 species

 

Sample 4-6: Paragraph Heading Changed to Cell-5 Heading

paragraph heading changed to cell-5 heading

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,kettles & ,/1m]s
 2 ,) kettles & /1m]s1 *efs c prep>e l>ge
 3 am.ts ( food e6ici5tly4 444
 4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 5 _4 ~1,/1m-,jacket$ ~1,kettle4,available
 6 ⠀⠀9 bo? free/&+ & tabletop models1 a
 7 ⠀⠀~1/1m-jacket$ ~1kettle is a kettle t
 8 ⠀⠀provides an ev5 h1t by circulat+ /1m
 9 ⠀⠀"? xs walls4 444

 

Sample 4-7: Icon Headings with Descriptions

Full Text of Icon Descriptions in Front of BookIcon Descriptions in Front of Book

Icon Use within Text
Icon Use within Text

Option 1

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 2 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,proc$ure
 3 ,eye ,safety
 4 ,clo?+ ,protec;n
 5 ,h&wa%+
 6 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 7 #a4 ,r1d & complete ! lab safety =m4

Option 2 (Icons are Listed on Special Symbols Page)

 8 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,proc$ure `$es `$cp `$hw
 9 #a4 ,r1d & complete ! lab safety =m4