Section 1
Basic Principles and General Formats

1.1       Fundamentals

1.2       Technical and Specialized Materials

1.3       Partially Technical Works

1.4       Definitions, Format, and Terminology

1.5       Formatting for Magazines or Newsletters in Noninstructional Material

1.6       Volume Information

1.7       Page Size, Line Length, and Line Spacing

1.8       Titles and Running Heads

1.9       Paragraph Format

1.10     Word Division

1.11     Print Page Numbers

1.12     Material Printed Across Facing Pages

1.13     Letter/Number or Number/Number Combinations

1.14     Numeric and Alphabetic Print Page Numbers

1.15     Braille Page Numbers

1.16     Foreign Material in English Context

1.17     Volume Labels

1.18     Samples

1.1    Fundamentals

1.1.1
Braille Formats: Principles of Print-to-Braille Transcription, 2016 (called guidelines in the following sections) provides a foundation for transcribing content in an accurate and consistent manner. This document is a set of guidelines that should be used to make structuring decisions. As print is evolving constantly, it is neither possible nor practical to provide directives for all potential transcription problems. Today’s transcriber will encounter unique print conventions and is expected to use experience and judgment in adapting the best practices provided in these guidelines when encountering situations not covered here.
1.1.2
All decisions concerning the formation or placement of braille dots or symbols conform to the most recent editions of The Rules of Unified English Braille (UEB) (called UEB in the following sections) and to the rules and usages set forth in these guidelines. Exceptions are noted in Formats, §1.2, Technical and Specialized Materials of these guidelines and conform to those codes and any additional specialized braille rules or guidelines adopted by BANA following the adoption of this document.
1.1.3
Agencies may have specific requests for the format of print-to-braille material such as double-spacing, use of contracted or uncontracted braille, interpoint or single-sided embossing, inclusion or exclusion of some materials, and special formatting requests such as interlining.
1.1.4
A transcriber does not edit text.
1.1.5
Print format cannot always be followed. If a particular format or font attribute cannot be represented in braille, the reader should be made aware of it through the use of a transcriber’s note or other device.
1.1.6
Clarity of presentation always supersedes concerns about space. Space saving is not the primary consideration.
1.1.7
A transcriber examines the print before beginning a transcription in order to structure the text consistently.
1.1.8
Text is transcribed as printed, with the wording and sequence retained. Marginal materials are placed where appropriate for their format.
1.1.9
Expendable materials follow the same formatting guidelines as permanent materials. An agency may require some modifications, e.g., retaining space for the student’s name and date, leaving extra blank lines for writing answers, etc.
1.1.10
A transcriber notifies the issuing agency when print cannot be transcribed. An example might be a book that is primarily pictures.
1.1.11
Print running headers and footers are ignored in braille. These often include the chapter or lesson title, the book title, etc.
1.1.12
A Braille Reader’s Perspective. These guidelines are written so transcribers can produce the best possible braille for readers. In the past, BANA has issued rules that transcribers have been expected to follow even though many of them have never met a braille reader or seen braille read. We hope A Braille Reader’s Perspective gives transcribers direction when interpreting the guidelines, especially in unusual situations.

1.2     Technical and Specialized Materials

1.2.1
Transcriptions of technical and specialized material must be undertaken only by transcribers who are trained in the use of the appropriate braille codes and guidelines, including all updates. See the BANA website at www.brailleauthority.org for the most current code documents. There are guidelines for many different types of materials, including but not limited to, knit/crochet directions, music, tactile graphics, mathematics, and other technical materials. The website will provide additional guidelines as they are developed.
1.2.2
Graphics. Use the current Guidelines and Standards for Tactile Graphics when creating tactile graphics. The guidelines are available at http://www.brailleauthority.org/tg/index.html.
1.2.3
Foreign Language. The use of contractions in foreign language within an English context has been approved by BANA. See Formats, §1.16, Foreign Material in English Context, for instructions on transcribing these types of materials.
1.2.4
Linguistics. The transcription of materials using specialized linguistics symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet must be done in accordance with the IPA Braille guidelines found at http://www.brailleauthority.org/ipa/ipa-braille.html.
1.2.5
Music Notation. The transcription of all music notation must be done in accordance with the provisions of the current Music Braille Code, available at http://www.brailleauthority.org/music/music.html.
1.2.6
Mathematics and Science. When transcribing technical content (e.g., mathematics, statistics, physics, or chemistry) that appears throughout the book, the materials should be transcribed according to UEB or Nemeth based on the specifications of the requesting entity. Consistency within a transcription is required. The following materials are available for reference:

a.  Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation, 1972 Revision, (and applicable updates). See the Guidance for Transcription Using the Nemeth Code within UEB Context available at http://www.brailleauthority.org/mathscience/math-science.html.

b.  Unified English Braille Guidelines for Technical Material is a supplement to the UEB Rulebook that provides additional examples for technical materials transcribed using UEB. This reference is available at http://www.iceb.org/guidelines_for_technical_material_2014.pdf.

1.3     Partially Technical Works

1.3.1
Books with occasional mathematical or scientific terminology and notation are transcribed using UEB as the primary code. Symbols from other codes are listed on the Special Symbols page or in a transcriber’s note before the text. Consistency within a transcription is required.
1.3.2
Text containing technical notation throughout the transcription requires notice of this usage on the Transcriber’s Notes page. Samples:

Mathematical content is transcribed according to The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation, 1972 Revision, 2007–2016 updates and the Guidance for Transcription Using the Nemeth Code within UEB Context.

Tactile graphics are produced according to the Guidelines and Standards for Tactile Graphics, 2010.

a.  Use of these codes requires knowledge and understanding of the code. It is the transcriber’s responsibility to seek assistance from a code specialist to ensure an accurate transcription of the technical content.

b.  See Formats, §2.6, Transcriber’s Notes Page, for detailed information about the Transcriber’s Notes page.

1.4     Definitions, Format, and Terminology

1.4.1
These guidelines contain definitions that identify print materials for which specific braille formats are provided. Regardless of print terminology, material in the braille edition is identified and transcribed according to the appropriate guideline definition. For example, columnar materials may be referred to as lists, columns, tables, or even figures in print. In braille, the material is identified first as fitting one of the specific definitions given for columnar material, lists, or tables and then transcribed accordingly.
1.4.2
Blocked refers to text alignment in which all lines begin at the same left margin.
1.4.3
Formatting patterns of paragraph indentation and runover lines are shown as two numbers separated by a hyphen. The first number is the paragraph indent and the second number is the runover, e.g., use 1-3 format for lists and 3-1 format for indented paragraphs.
1.4.4
A nested list, a list within a list, has main entries and at least one level of subentries.

The main entry begins in cell 1. Each subentry level begins two cells to the right of the previous level. All runovers begin two cells to the right of the farthest indented subentry.

Two levels: 1-5, 3-5
Three levels: 1-7, 3-7, 5-7
Four levels: 1-9, 3-9, 5-9, 7-9 etc.
1.4.5
Displayed material refers to text set off by blank lines and/or a different margin.

Example 1-1: Displayed Material (Print Only)

... the story begins with a line from poetry
[The fields are awash in a sea of blue.]
The "sea of blue" refers to the wildflowers growing in abundance ...
1.4.5
Embedded material refers to text inserted within a paragraph.

Example 1-2: Embedded Material (Print Only)

... the story begins with a line from poetry. [The fields are awash in a sea of blue.] The "sea of blue" refers to the wildflowers growing in abundance ...

1.5     Formatting for Magazines or Newsletters in Noninstructional Material

Where it is desirable to indicate ends of articles, stories, etc., a termination line consisting of a dot 5 followed by 12 consecutive dots 2-5 should be centered on a new line. Do not insert blank lines above or below this line unless required by other formats, e.g., headings, lists, poetry, etc. If there is insufficient room below the termination line for the heading and the first line of text, the new item should begin on a new page.

1.6     Volume Information

1.6.1
Volume Size. An agency may specify maximum braille volume size for the transcriptions that it sponsors. The decision may be based on the reading level, especially for lower grades. Volume size is dependent also on output as either single-side or interpoint.

a.  End a braille volume with a logical break in content, e.g., at the end of a unit, part, chapter, or section.

b.  Adherence to this principle is more important than maintaining uniform volume size throughout the braille edition.

1.6.2
Volume Numbering. Volumes are given consecutive arabic numbers that are to be:

a.  Placed on all title pages.

b.  Indicated in the table of contents for the first volume. (See Formats, §2.10.3, Headings.)

c.  Placed on the cover label. (See Formats, §1.17, Volume Labels.)

1.6.3
Preliminary Volumes. A volume composed entirely of transcriber-generated pages, the table of contents, and other front matter is labeled as a “Preliminary Volume.”

a.  The volume designation on the title page is “Preliminary Volume.”

b.  An arabic number is added if there is more than one preliminary volume, i.e., “Preliminary Volume 2.”

c.  An agency may designate “Preliminary Volume” as “Volume 1.”

1.6.4
Supplemental Volumes. A volume composed entirely of segments of back matter (e.g., glossary, handbook, index, etc.) may be labeled as a supplement. This can be useful when the book is not transcribed from front to back and volume divisions are not known.

a.  The volume designation on the title page is “Supplement” followed by the number of the supplement, e.g., “Supplement 2.”

b.  The volume designation may be specific when the entire volume is composed of a single type of back matter. For example, “Supplement 1: Glossary.”

1.6.5
End of Volume. Indicate the end of each volume on the last page.

a.  In each volume include a centered-and-numbered volume statement enclosed in transcriber’s note indicators: End of Volume __.

b.  In the final volume include a centered end-of-book statement enclosed in transcriber’s note indicators: The End.

c.  Whenever possible, precede the end-of-volume statement with a blank line.

Example 1-3: End-of-Volume Statement within Braille Page

5 .1,9f]⠀,:y⠀d⠀sci5ti/s 2lieve t
6 mito*ondria⠀may⠀h⠀be5⠀9vad]s ( e>ly⠀
7 cells8
8 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
9 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,5d ( ,volume #c@.>

d.  When text ends on the next to last line of a page, the end-of-volume statement may be placed on the last line.

Example 1-4: End-of-Volume Statement on Line 25

22 .1,9f]⠀,:y⠀d⠀sci5ti/s 2lieve t
23 mito*ondria⠀may⠀h⠀be5⠀9vad]s ( e>ly
24 cells8
25 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,5d ( ,volume #c@.>⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#,-

e.  When the text ends on the last line of a page, the end-of-volume statement may be included on the line if it is preceded and followed by three blank cells.

Example 1-5: End-of-Volume Statement Added to Line 25

23 .1,9f] ,:y⠀d sci5ti/s 2lieve t
24 mito*ondria may h be5 9vad]s ( e>ly
25 cells8⠀⠀⠀@.<,5d ( ,volume #c@.>⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#,-

f.   When there is not sufficient room for the text and end-of-volume statement at the end of the page, carry one line of text to the next page.

g.  Transcribe the end-of-volume statement on the last page, regardless of format (such as glossaries).

Example 1-6: End-of-Book Statement in Glossary

20 zygote3 f]tiliz$ egg
21 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
22 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀@.<,! ,5d@.>
23 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
24 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
25 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀vitam9,-zygote⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#,-

h.  The end-of-volume statement follows print indications of the end of a play, when a phrase such as “Curtain Falling” occurs as the last text in the volume.

1.7     Page Size, Line Length, and Line Spacing

1.7.1
Materials are usually embossed on 11½″ × 11″ braille paper with 25 lines, with a maximum of 40 cells per line. Single line spacing is used.

a.  An agency may specify the page size and line length to be used in transcriptions that it sponsors.

b.  An agency may request double-spacing.

1.7.2
Double-spacing is often requested when a reader is learning braille.

a.  Use two blank lines wherever there is normally one blank line.

b.  Insert a blank line before and after a page change indicator.

Exceptions:

c.  Single-space title pages and supplementary title pages.

d.  Single-space puzzles, such as crosswords and word searches.

e.  Single-space tables.

f.   Single-space spatial equations.

g.  Do not insert any blank lines after a top box line.

h.  Do not insert any blank lines before a bottom box line.

i.   Do not insert any blank lines between column headings and the separation line.

1.7.3
If print interlining is requested, the print must appear word-for-word above the braille.

1.8     Titles and Running Heads

1.8.1
Titles. The complete book title, including a grade level (if indicated in print), subtitle, series title, and edition name or number, appears on the first line(s) of braille page 1 in each volume.

a.  Center the title on line 1, and other lines as necessary.

b.  Follow print for capitalization.

c.  Leave a minimum of three blank cells before the start of the title.

d.  Leave a minimum of three blank cells between the end of the title and the print page number.

e.  Insert a blank line following the title information.

1.8.2
Running Heads. If a braille running head is used, it appears on the first line of every page, except the title page and the first page of text in each volume where the full title is indicated.
The running head is centered on the available cells of the first line, i.e., leaving at least three blank cells at both the beginning of the line and before the print page number.

a.  A blank line is not inserted after a running head unless it is required by other formats, e.g., headings, lists, etc.

b.  The running head is limited to one braille line, and the same wording and capitalization is used on all pages of all volumes in a transcription.

c.  The running head is formed from the title on the print title page.

d.  Follow print for the capitalization.

e.  If a title is too long to use as the running head, either adjust capitalization or choose key words from the title.

Example 1-7: Running Head

Running head example

1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,explor+ ,psy*ology         #c

1.9     Paragraph Format

1.9.1
Follow print for capitalization at the beginning of a paragraph.

Example 1-8: Uppercase Used at Beginning of Paragraph

Uppercase used at beginning of paragraph example

,,,! old woman foll[$ !m;, home f !
groc}y /ore4

1.9.2
Use 3-1 margins for indented paragraphs.
1.9.3
Use 1-1 margins for blocked paragraphs. A blank line precedes each blocked paragraph, unless it follows a cell-5 or cell-7 heading.

Exception: Use indented paragraphs when an entire text is printed in blocked paragraphs. Note this change on the Transcriber’s Notes page.
1.9.4
Numbered or lettered paragraphs that do not indicate a list are indented or blocked as they are in print. In a numbered paragraph the numbers are present typically for discussion. In a list the numbers are present for itemizing.
1.9.5
Follow print when print uses a blank line to show a break in context. Follow print when the break in context is shown using some type of print symbol. Center the braille equivalent on a separate line. If print uses more than one symbol, place a space between each symbol. If print uses a symbol for which there is no braille equivalent, use a transcriber-defined symbol.

1.10   Word Division

1.10.1
Do not divide words at the end of a line except for purposes of instruction (e.g., in grammars or spellers), or in line-numbered prose or poetry. Hyphenated compound words may be divided between lines at an agency’s discretion. Follow print for syllabification when words are divided for purposes of instruction. Follow print when words are divided between print pages.

1.11   Print Page Numbers

1.11.1
All print page numbers, including front matter pages, are included in braille. The print page number is located at the end of line 1.

Exception: Pages of text at the end of the book that are not included in the braille volume do not have to be accounted for, e.g., photo credits.
1.11.2
When a print page begins at the top of a braille page, the print page number is placed to end at the right margin on the first line with three or more blank cells left between the end of the text, or running head, and the page number.
1.11.3
When a new print page begins in the middle of a braille page, the print page number is preceded by the page change indicator. The indicator, a line of unspaced dots 36, is on the same braille line as the page number, starting at the left margin and ending with the new page number at the right margin. There is no space between the page change indicator and the first symbol of the print page number.

Example 1-9: Page Change Indicator Mid-Braille Page

text
-------------------------------------#bb
3t9ues on ! l9e af ! 9dicator4

a.  The presence of the print page change indicator does not affect the use of blank lines.

b.  Insert a blank line before the page change indicator when the text ending the print page would normally be followed by a blank line. (See Sample 1-1: List at End of Print Page on page 1-21.)

c.  Insert a blank line after the page change indicator when the new print page starts with a format that normally is preceded by a blank line. (See Sample 1-2: Heading at Beginning of Print Page on page 1-22.)

d.  Use only one blank line following a page change indicator when the guidelines require a blank line before and after a page change indicator.

Example 1-10: Blank Line After Page Change Indicator

Blank Line After Page Change Indicator example

d[n
t]ritory
migrate
------------------------------------#cfj
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀,*oose ! lr ( ! answ] t be/
⠀⠀⠀⠀completes ea* /ate;t4
#a4 ,: ( ^! is a bird ( prey8
⠀⠀a4 eagle
⠀⠀;b4 444

1.11.4
Begin the new print page on the next braille page when there is not enough room for the page change indicator and one line of text (other than a heading). Page change indicators may appear on line 2 following a line of text, or on line 3 after a running head and one line of text.
1.11.5
Implied Page Numbers. For a number of reasons, a print page may not show a page number, yet it is implied. In braille, the print page number is inserted whether or not it appears in print.

a.  An image may cover the area where the page number normally appears, and the page number is not shown. The page number is implied.

b.  Page numbers do not always appear on the first pages in the front matter. The page numbers are implied when the print page numbers start with something other than i or 1.

1.11.6
No Print Page Numbers. Some books have no page numbers or there are sections of text without numbers. For example, a section of photographs with captions but without page numbers may be inserted between two consecutive page numbers. Sections at the end of the book also may be unnumbered.

a.  Insert a row of unspaced dots 36 across the width of the line to indicate print page changes.

b.  Continue braille page numbering on these pages.

c.  If the page change indicator would fall on line 25, move it to the next braille page.

d.  The page change indicator can be placed on line 1 if no running head is used.

e.  If the page change indicator would fall at the top of a braille page, and a running head is used, place the page change indicator on line 2. No blank line is required between the running head and the page change indicator.

1.11.7
Lettered Continuation Pages. Material on a print page typically continues on one or more braille pages.

a.  Place the same print page number to end at the right margin on line 1 of each of these pages.

b.  Precede the page number by an unspaced a for the first continued page, b for the second, etc. These letters are transcribed without the grade 1 indicator, and the usual three blank cells are left between the end of the text or running head and the lettered page number.

Example 1-11: Lettered Continuation Pages (Print Only)

Lettered Continuation Pages (Print Only) example

c.  Use double letters, aa, bb, etc., when the continuation page number goes beyond z.

1.11.8
Combined Print Page Numbers. When the first page of text does not begin with a page numbered as i, I, or 1, or has some other logical sequence of numbers, a combined print page number is inserted to account for the preceding pages. Do not combine different types of numbering systems, e.g., roman and arabic numerals.

a.  Combine the initial roman or arabic number with the number of the page on which the text section actually begins (e.g., i-v, I-V, or 1-5) and place this combined page number at the right margin. If lettered continuation pages are required, they carry only the number of the page on which the text section actually occurs, e.g., av, aV, or a5. (See Formats, §2.3.8d, Print Page Information.)

b.  When one or more pages contain only headings, such as the book title, part, unit, or chapter, combine the headings with the following text on a single braille page.

c.  Include the full pages of material omitted from the braille edition in a combined page number, e.g., 25-29.

d.  When a page is blank or has only an uncaptioned illustration, combine that/those page(s) with the next page on which text occurs. (See Sample 1-3: Combined Print Page Numbers on page 1-23.)

1.12   Print Page Numbers

1.12.1
Material printed and read across two facing pages of a book, when there is no other material on either page, is treated as if it were on a single print page. The combined print page numbers (e.g., 44-45) are placed to end at the right margin. If lettered continuation pages are required, they also carry the combined print page numbers, e.g., a44-45, b44-45, and so forth. (See Sample 1-4: Material Across Facing Print Pages on page 1-24 and Sample 1-5: Material NOT Transcribed Across Facing Print Pages on page 1-26.)

1.13   Letter/Number or Number/Number Combinations

1.13.1
Such pagination is used widely for sections of a classroom text or to identify portions of exercise and laboratory manuals. A speller section may be numbered as S1-S7; pages IV1-IV5 may identify drills to be used with Chapter IV; or pages in Chapter 6 may be numbered 6-1, 6-2.

a.  Numbers that identify consecutive pages of text end at the right margin.

b.  Follow print for the sequence of the page numbers, using the continuation letter as needed.

c.  Omit the print hyphen; a transcriber’s note noting this change to print is required.

Example 1-12: Letter and Number Page Numbers

Print Combined Page Numbers Combined/Continued Numbers
IV49 ,,iv#di IV49-51 ,,iv#di-#ea aIV49-51 a,,iv#di-#ea
77S #gg,s 77S-79 #gg,s-#gi a77S-79 a#gg,s-#gi
I–65 ,i#fe I65-66 ,i#fe-#ff aI65-66 a,i#fe-#ff
6-12 #f#ab 6-12-14 #f#ab-#ad a6-12-14 a#f#ab-#ad

d.  Words preceding page numbers are changed to an appropriate uppercase letter, e.g., change Reference 1 to R1. Note this change on the Transcriber’s Notes page.

Example 1-13: Word and Number Page Numbers

Word/Number Combination/Continued Page Numbers
Reference 1 R1 ,r#a
Reference a1 aR1 a,r#a
Reference 1-6 R1-6 ,r#a-#f
Reference a1-6 aR1-6 a,r#a-#f
Reference 1-a6 R1-aR6 ,r#a-a,r#f

e.  When the page numbers are referenced within the book, such as the table of contents and index, the same method applies. No continuation indicators are used.

f.   Option: The letter may be omitted when all the pages within the book have the same letter preceding the 1-17 Section 1 Basic Principles and General Formats number. Note this change on the Transcriber’s Notes page. Sample:

All page numbers in the text begin with the letter R, which has been omitted.

1.14   Numeric and Alphabetic Print Page Numbers

1.14.1
Some books include spelled out (alphabetic) print page numbers in addition to the numeric numbers. This practice is often seen in math, foreign language, and lower grade books. As this technique is a learning strategy, it is important to include both numeric and alphabetic numbers in braille.

a.  Follow print for the use of hyphens within the alphabetic number.

b.  The numeric and alphabetic numbers must appear on the same braille page.

c.  The alphabetic page number is placed on line 1 if there is no running head and on line 2 if there is a running head. The alphabetic page number is preceded by six cells of the page change indicator symbol (dots 36). Runovers are in cell 7.

d.  Do not include the alphabetic page numbers on continuation pages.

e.  No other text can appear on the line with the alphabetic page number.

f.   Include both alphabetic page numbers when combined page numbers are used, e.g., 2-3 and two-three.

Example 1-14: Page Number without Running Head

1 ------ei<ty-n9e                     #hi
2 text 444

Example 1-15: Page Number with Running Head or Short Title

1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,runn+ ,h1d           #hi
2 ------ei<ty-n9e
3 text 444

Example 1-16: Page Number with Page Change Indicator

11 text 444
12 -------------------------------------#hi
13 ------ei<ty-n9e
14 text 444

g.  Include both alphabetic page numbers when combined page numbers are used, e.g., 2-3 and two-three.

Example 1-17: Long Page Number with Title on First Page

1 ------"o-?\s& ?ree-hundr$         #acge
2 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀sev5ty-five
3 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,title
4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,subtitle

1.15   Braille Page Numbers

1.15.1
All pages, including transcriber-generated and front matter pages, must have a braille page number. Exception: See Formats, §1.15.1f.

a.  Place braille page numbers at the right margin on the last line of the braille page.

b.  Precede transcriber-generated braille page numbers by t. (See Formats, §2.2, Transcriber-Generated Page Basics.)

c.  Precede print front matter braille page numbers by p. (See Formats, §2.7, Front Matter Basics.)

d.  Begin the main text of each volume with braille page 1.

e.  Show braille page numbers on all pages in single-side braille.

f.   Some agencies suppress the even braille page number in interpoint braille.

g.  At least three blank cells precede the braille page number.

1.15.2
Repeated or Omitted Braille Page Numbers. Explain any discrepancies in braille page numbers (e.g., when a braille page number is repeated or omitted for some reason) on the Transcriber’s Notes page.

1.16   Foreign Material in English Context

1.16.1
The provisions given in these guidelines apply to the transcription of foreign words and phrases appearing in English language materials other than those texts teaching a foreign language.
1.16.2
Foreign Material. For the purposes of agencies and transcribers working with codes of the Braille Authority of North America, any language other than modern English is considered a foreign language. This includes Old English and Middle English, as well as transliterated or romanized forms of languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, and Russian.
1.16.3
Foreign language words or phrases within an English language paragraph are contracted. Use modified letter indicators to represent accented letters. If a modification applies to a letter that would be part of a contraction, do not use the contraction. Use UEB symbols for inverted punctuation. (See UEB §4.2.1–4.5.2, Letters and Their Modifiers; §13.2, Using UEB Contractions; and §13.5, Using UEB Signs.)

Example 1-18: Foreign Language in an English Context

Foreign Language in an English Context example

,! ^w = sl$ is .1tr9eo4

Example 1-19: Contraction Not Used with Accented Letter

Foreign Language in an English Context example

,! ^w = wood%$ 9 ,spani% is le^}n]a4

1.17   Volume Labels

1.17.1
Labels are applied vertically to volume covers. The label content is an agency decision, but typically includes:

Title
Volume number
Inclusive print pages
1.17.2
Add inclusive letters for dictionaries and other multi-volume alphabetical reference books.
1.17.2
Most labels are limited to 30 cells and 2-4 lines.

Example 1-20: Volume Label

Volume Label example

,! ,sev5 ,wond]s ( ! ,_w
,v#e3 #aje-#ade

1.18   Samples

Sample 1-1: List at End of Print Page

List at End of Print Page

Print Page Break at the Beginning of a Braille Page

22 #a ,old] adults 9cr1s+ly use ^ws t 3vey
23 ⠀⠀positive emo;ns4
24 #b ,bra9-wave reac;ns to negative images
25 ⠀⠀dim9i% ) age4

                       —New Braille Page—

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#aga
 2 ⠀⠀,moreov]1 at all ages1 ! bad feel+s we
 3 associate ) negative ev5ts fade fa/] ?an
 4 d ! gd feel+s we associate ) positive
 5 ev5ts4

Print Page Break within a Braille Page

 6 #a ,old] adults 9cr1s+ly use ^ws t 3vey
 7 ⠀⠀positive emo;ns4
 8 #b ,bra9-wave reac;ns to negative images
 9 ⠀⠀dim9i% ) age4
10 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
11 ------------------------------------#aga
12 ⠀⠀,moreov]1 at all ages1 ! bad feel+s we
13 associate ) negative ev5ts fade fa/] ?an
14 d ! gd feel+s we associate ) positive
15 ev5ts4

 

Sample 1-2: Heading at Beginning of Print Page

Heading at beginning of print page

 4 ,o!rs h special /ructures on _! back 9 :
 5 _! "y develop4
 6 ------------------------------------#cbe
 7 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 8 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,frogs & ,toads
 9 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
10 ⠀⠀,h y "e wond]$ :at happ5s to frogs &
11 toads 9 ! w9t] :5 ! temp]ature falls8

 

Sample 1-3: Combined Print Page Numbers

Combined Print Page Numbers

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,unit ,"o           #d-#e
 2 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,"*i/ics ( ,liv+ ,?+s
 3 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 4 ⠀⠀,:at d y ?9k ( :5 y he> ! ^ws build+
 5 blocks8 ,p]h 444

25 444⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#,-

                       —New Braille Page—

 1 & >e go+ to explore v special⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀a#e

 

Sample 1-4: Material Across Facing Print Pages

Material Across Facing Print Pages

 1 ,text is r1d acr fac+ pages z     #dd-#de
 2 if bo? pages 7 a s+le page4 444

25 444⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#,-

                       —New Braille Page—

 1 444                              a#dd-#de

 

Sample 1-5: Material NOT Transcribed Across Facing Print Pages

Material NOT Transcribed Across Facing Print Pages

 1 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀,"w9' on ! ,railroad⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀#dd
 2 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 3 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀`.<,! foll{+ "tl9e is acr ! bottom
 4 ⠀⠀⠀⠀( pages #dd-#de4`.>
 5 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
 6 #bjab
 7 ⠀⠀,m>*,-,3/ruc;n "tl9e set
 8 ⠀⠀,fall,-,3/ruc;n />ts on #bcj-k,v
 9 ⠀⠀⠀⠀,,ed#e-to-,?ornton ,road l9e 444
10 #bjac
11 ⠀⠀444
12 -------------------------------------#de
13 #bjad
14 ⠀⠀,jan4 #bcj k,v 444
15 #bjae
16 ⠀⠀,jan4,-,sy/em 9 s}vice
17 ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
18 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777
19 ,d[n by ! /a;n e>ly 9 ! morn+
20 ,see ! ll pu6}bellies all 9 a r{
21 ,see ! /a;n ma/} turn ! ll h&le
22 ,puff1 puff1 toot1 toot1 (f we g6
23 gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg