Application of the Formats Guidelines 2011
to Nemeth Transcriptions

Mathematics Braille Technical Committee

Approved November 2012

This document was created by BANA's Mathematics Braille Technical Committee to provide a quick guide to the updated Braille Formats: Principles of Print-to-Braille Transcription, 2011 book for transcribers and proofreaders who produce Nemeth code materials. Please refer to the Formats Guidelines for additional details.

Numbers

Everywhere but on the title page, numbers are placed in the lower part of the cell. So if, for instance, however unlikely, there is line-numbered text in a technical transcription, the line numbers will be lower-cell numbers.

Blank Lines

Formats: There will not be a blank line both before and after a page change indicator. When a blank line is required preceding the page line and a heading follows the page line, one blank line will follow the indicator.

Nemeth: When spatial material precedes a page change indicator, you will need 2 blank lines: one between the spatial material and the page change indicator according to Nemeth Code and another between the page change indicator and a heading to satisfy Formats Guidelines.

Section 1: Basic Principles and General Formats

1.8.2: Indented paragraphs are in 3-1.
18.3: Blocked paragraphs are in 1-1.
Nemeth: Paragraphs remain 3-1.

1.15.7: A single Greek letter or letter combination is preceded by the Greek letter indicator (dot 2).

Nemeth: Follow Rule IV for alphabets. Do not use the literary Greek letter indicator.

Section 2: Transcriber-Generated Pages and Front Matter

2.4.1: Information that will not fit on the title page, as well as additional information in the book's front matter, goes on the second/subsequent title pages.

Nemeth: Unlike title pages, subsequent or secondary title pages are done in Nemeth, not literary code.

Section 4: Headings

4.3.8: In headings, use the period rather than the decimal point when a period appears between a letter and a number.

Nemeth: Use a decimal point, not a period, between a letter and a number.

Section 5: Font Attributes

Nemeth: Font attributes are not applied in mathematics or technical transcriptions. Follow Nemeth rules and use Nemeth indicators to specify font attributes. Rule V

Section 7: Boxed Material

7.6: When a box is shown in a color, the top box line begins with the color indicator in cell 1 followed by a blank cell before filling the remainder of the line.

Nemeth: Because the color indicators (Guideline 5) are not used in Nemeth, if box color is referenced in the text, devise a symbol based on the Nemeth method for creating reference indicators, using an indicator that does not already have a meaning in the Nemeth code; or explain the color in a transcriber's note.

Section 8: Lists

8.6.1b: (Nested Lists) The main entry begins in cell 1. Each subentry level begins two cells to the right of the previous level. All runovers begin two cells to the right of the farthest indented subentry.

Nemeth 191: A slight wording change was made in 191. Originally it said: When material is identified sequentially by number or letter, as in exercises or outlines, it will be referred to as itemized material. The main division numbers or letters must begin in cell 1 and run over, if necessary, in cell 5. Subdivision numbers or letters, regardless of depth, must begin in cell 3 and must be run over, if necessary, in cell 5.

The words "or outlines" have been removed from 191, allowing the use of the nested list format in non-mathematical listed material such as tables of contents, outlines, family trees, organizational charts, etc.

8.6c: All items within the section with subentries are treated as a nested list, even if some items do not have a subentry.

Nemeth: Runover margins for itemized material will be determined individually for each question rather than by section.

8.9.3: The letter indicator is not used before outline letters in contact with punctuation or closing enclosure symbols.

Nemeth: The English letter indicator is used with single letters followed by punctuation or closing enclosure symbols. See Rule IV, 25-26.

8.6c: All items within the section with subentries are treated as a nested list, even if some items do not have a subentry.

Nemeth: Runover margins for itemized material will be determined individually for each question rather than by section.

8.9.3: The letter indicator is not used before outline letters in contact with punctuation or closing enclosure symbols.

Nemeth: The English letter indicator is used with single letters followed by punctuation or closing enclosure symbols. See Rule IV, 25-26.

Section 9: Displayed Material, Attributions, and Source Information

9.2.2 Displayed material requires a blank line before and after. The adjusted left margin is used, 2 cells to the right of the regular margin.

Nemeth: Follow Formats for displayed literary text (except there are no blocked paragraphs in Nemeth). Displayed mathematical expressions follow Nemeth 188-191.

Section 10: Exercise Material

10.3.1: It is preferable for an entire exercise set (directions and corresponding activities) to be on a single page. If they do not fit on a single page, but the activities will fit on a single page, directions may be on a page preceding the activities.

Nemeth: At least one line of the instructions must be on the same braille page as the questions that follow.

10.3.1: Directions are followed by specific question/answer types of activities in the book.

Nemeth: Instructions must be followed by lettered or numbered exercises. If not, the text is transcribed as a narrative paragraph, 3-1.

10.3.2: Unnumbered or unlettered directions are in 5-5. Additional paragraphs are in 7-5.

Nemeth: Instructions are in 5-3. Additional paragraphs are 5-3.

10.4.2: An exercise set with subentries is treated as a nested list.

Nemeth: An exercise with subentries to whatever depth has margins 1-5, 3-5. The indention pattern is determined individually for each exercise.

10.6.1: A double dash preceded and followed by a blank cell represents a print dash, blank space, or other print device that indicates omission.

Nemeth: A double dash preceded and followed by a blank cell represents a print dash that indicates omission. A blank space or question mark meaning omission is represented by a full cell. For other omission indicators, follow print (e.g., ellipsis).

10.6.12: A question mark alone or over or under a print line represents a write-on-line. The question mark is included in the transcription, preceded by a dot 4.

Nemeth: A question mark with or without a print line indicating an answer to be filled in is represented in Nemeth by a full cell. Do not show the double dash with a freestanding question mark following it.

10.7.1: The adjusted left margin for displayed textin exercise material is 5, with indented paragraphs in 7-5. A blank line is required before and after.

Nemeth: Follow this same guideline for displayed text, except there will be no blocked paragraphs. Displayed mathematical expressions begin 2 cells to the right of the material to which they apply, with runovers 2 cells to the right of that; no blank lines.

Section 11: Tables and Related Columns

11. Follow Braille Formats Guidelines for the structure of tables; follow Nemeth Rules for the contents.

11.6.4: Follow print when an omission is indicated by a dash or an ellipsis meaning the reader is to provide an answer.

Nemeth: Follow print when an omission is indicated by a dash (use a double dash) or an ellipsis meaning the reader is to provide an answer. A blank space to be filled in is transcribed as a full cell.

11.6.6: Insert the correct symbol for spaces in segmented numbers.

Nemeth: Do not insert a symbol into the spaces in segmented numbers.

11.7.1: Tables consisting solely of numbers in the column entries may omit the number indicator to save space. A TN is required.

Nemeth: If the body of the table, including row headings, consists only of numbers, the numeric indicator may by omitted. No TN is required.

11.8.1: Devise a key using letters, numbers, or a combination of letters and numbers, consisting of two or three cells. Key items may correspond to short-form words or contractions. One of the letters must have a dot 3 or dot 6.

Nemeth: Letter keys must consist of only 2 cells. No short-form words or contractions may be used. One of the letters must have a dot 3 or dot 6. Number keys consist of literary numbers.

11.9.1: In skeleton tables, indicate the empty column entries with a dash
(36, 36).

Nemeth: The empty column entries in a skeleton table are indicated by a full cell unless there is a print line, in which case it is a double dash.

11.16.1: In listed table format, a dash is used for blank entries which are to be filled in.

Nemeth: In listed table format, a double dash is used for blank entries which are to be filled in.

Section 16: Notes

Nemeth: Follow Formats for placement of notes, Nemeth for reference indicators.

Section 17: Spellers

17.5.1: Use the primary bullet (456, 246) when only some of the items in a list are marked.

Nemeth: For marked words in a list, use the symbol shown in print.

17.12: Nonalphabetic Signs: In Nemeth transcriptions, use the mathematical symbols from Nemeth. They do not need to be listed on the Special Symbols page.

17.12: For print arrows showing progression in word formation, use Nemeth arrows.

Section 18: Grammar

18.4.1: Analogy symbols must be listed on the Special Symbols page.

Nemeth: Use analogy symbols according to the rules of Nemeth Code. No contractions are used in words next to comparison symbols (is to, as). Do not list the symbols on the Special Symbols page.

18.6.4: Use a spaced caret symbol (35, 26) when a caret indicates an insertion is to be made.

Nemeth: In a grammar context, use the literary caret. In technical context, use the Nemeth caret. The literary caret will have to be listed on the Special Symbols page.

18.7.3: Use a spaced shape indicator before words enclosed in shapes, (e.g., circles, boxes) Use a spaced termination indicator after the word.

Nemeth: Words enclosed in shapes are transcribed according to the methods for shapes with internal modification.

18.8: Spatial Sentence Diagrams with Arrows

Nemeth: Sentence diagramming arrows may be used in that context with an explanatory note.

Section 21: Pronunciation

21.2: We are advising that diacritic pronunciations and pronunciation keys use the symbols as defined by Braille Formats, including enclosure symbols.

Section 22: Alphabetic References

22.8: Superscript number shown before an entry word in print is preceded by a dot 4.

Superscript number shown after an entry word in print is preceded by dots 45.

These superscript numbers are always shown after the entry word, preceded by a blank space.

Nemeth: Indicate a superscript number or letter on an entry word with the Nemeth superscript indicator, unspaced from the uncontracted word to which it applies. In Nemeth, a word that is in contact with a braille indicator, except for a capital letter indicator or an italic indicator, may not be contracted.

entry word1

5try ~w entry word~1

horse2

horse~2